Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1012453
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Public domain data
These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.
The recommended acknowledgment is
"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."
Neil Brown MK3 CTD
The Neil Brown MK3 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiler consists of an integral unit containing pressure, temperature and conductivity sensors with an optional dissolved oxygen sensor in a pressure-hardened casing. The most widely used variant in the 1980s and 1990s was the MK3B. An upgrade to this, the MK3C, was developed to meet the requirements of the WOCE project.
The MK3C includes a low hysteresis, titanium strain gauge pressure transducer. The transducer temperature is measured separately, allowing correction for the effects of temperature on pressure measurements. The MK3C conductivity cell features a free flow, internal field design that eliminates ducted pumping and is not affected by external metallic objects such as guard cages and external sensors.
Additional optional sensors include pH and a pressure-temperature fluorometer. The instrument is no longer in production, but is supported (repair and calibration) by General Oceanics.
These specification apply to the MK3C version.
3200 m (optional)
|-3 to 32°C||1 to 6.5 S cm-1|
0.03% FS < 1 msec
0.003°C < 30 msec
0.0001 S cm-1
0.0003 S cm-1 < 30 msec
Further details can be found in the specification sheet.
RRS James Clark Ross 27 CTD Data Documentation
CTD profile data are presented from the cruise James Clark Ross 27 in the Drake Passage (WOCE SR1 Section), as reported by Cunningham et al. (1999).
Instrumentation and Methodology
The CTD profiles were taken with a Neil Brown Systems MkIII CTD mounted beneath a bottle rosette. The CTD was fitted with a pressure sensor, conductivity cell, platinum resistance thermometer and a dissolved oxygen sensor.
Lowering rates for the CTD package were generally in the range 0.5-1.0ms-1 but could be up to 1.5ms-1. The CTD deck unit passes raw data to a dedicated Level A microcomputer where 1 second averages are assembled. During this process the Level A calculates the rate of change of temperature and a median sorting routine detects and removes pressure spikes. These data are sent to the Level B for archival. The data are then passed to a Level C workstation for conversion to Pstar format and calibration.
A total of 54 stations were occupied (CTD01 - CTD54). Drake Passage stations for this cruise were CTD03 - CTD54 and have been occupied in reverse order to the previous Drake Passage cruises of JCR0A, 0B and 16.
The 1 second data passed to the Level C were converted to Pstar format and initially calibrated with coefficients from laboratory calibrations followed by a number of calibration corrections. The up cast data were extracted for merging with the bottle firing codes, on time, thus the CTD variables were reconciled with the bottle samples. Final calibrations were applied using the sample bottle data. Finally, down cast data were extracted, sorted on pressure and averaged to 2db values, with any gaps filled by linear interpolation.
The data were worked up to WOCE standards by the data originators before being supplied to BODC.
BODC Data Processing
No further calibrations were applied to the data received by BODC. BODC were mainly concerned with the screening and banking of the data.
The CTD data were received as 2db averaged pressure sorted down cast data. Parameters were pressure (dbar), temperature (its-90) and salinity (pss-78). No oxygen data were received.
The data were converted into the BODC internal format (PXF) to allow the use of in-house software tools, notably the graphics editor. Spikes in the data were manually flagged 'suspect' by modification of the associated quality control flag. In this way none of the original data values were edited or deleted during quality control. Very little flagging was required for these data. Once screened, the CTD data were loaded into a database under the Oracle relational database management system. The start time stored in the database is the CTD bottom time, and the end time has been left null. Latitude and longitude are also the positions at bottom time.
Cunningham, S.A. et al. (1999). RRS James Clark Ross, JR27, WOCE SR1 in Drake Passage. Southampton Oceanography Centre. Unpublished Cruise Report.
World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a major international experiment which made measurements and undertook modelling studies of the deep oceans in order to provide a much improved understanding of the role of ocean circulation in changing and ameliorating the Earth's climate.
WOCE had two major goals:
Goal 1. To develop models to predict climate and to collect the data necessary to test them.
Goal 2. To determine the representativeness of the Goal 1 observations and to deduce cost effective means of determining long-term changes in ocean circulation.
The UK made a substantial contribution to the international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) project by focusing on two important regions:
- Southern Ocean - links all the worlds oceans, controlling global climate.
- North Atlantic - directly affects the climate of Europe.
A major part of the UK effort was in the Southern Ocean and work included:
- Two surveys, in the South Atlantic as part of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme.
- SWINDEX, a year long study of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) where it crosses major topography south of Africa.
- ADOX, a study of deep water flow from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.
- ACCLAIM, a study of the ACC by altimetry and island measurements.
In the North Atlantic the UK undertook:
- NATRE, a purposeful tracer experiment to look at cross isopycnic processes.
- CONVEX, a study of the deep ocean circulation and its changes.
- VIVALDI, a seven year programme of seasonally repeated surveys to study the upper ocean.
- Long-term observations of ocean climate in the North West Approaches.
Satellite ocean surface topography, temperature and wind data were merged with in situ observations and models to create a complete description of ocean circulation, eddy motion and the way the ocean is driven by the atmosphere.
The surveys were forerunners to the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). GOOS was later established to monitor annual to decadal changes in ocean circulation and heat storage which are vital in the prediction of climate change.
|Cruise Name||JR19971217 (JR27)|
|Principal Scientist(s)||Stuart A Cunningham (Southampton Oceanography Centre)|
|Ship||RRS James Clark Ross|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||Drake Passage - WOCE SR1b|
World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Southern Repeat Section 1B - Falkland Islands to Elephant Island
WOCE Southern Repeat Section 1B is a section across Drake Passage in the South Atlantic Ocean. The nominal end points of the section (to date) are at 52° 55.74' S, 58° 00.00' W (at the south of the Falkland Islands) and 61° 03.05' S, 54° 33.10' W (off Elephant Island at the north end of the Antarctic Peninsula).
The section was first occupied by the R/V Polarstern in 1992 (Gersonde, 1993). The first UK occupation of SR1b followed on RRS Discovery later the same year. The National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (formerly known as Southampton Oceanography Centre), in collaboration with the British Antarctic Survey, have occupied the section most years since 1993 on the RRS James Clark Ross. Additionally, there were three Spanish occupations on R/V Hespérides in February 1995, 1996 and 1998 (Garcia et al., 2002). A Drake Passage summary report for RRS James Clark Ross cruises between 1993 - 2000 has been produced.
A table of cruises which occupied SR1b is presented below with links to the relevant cruise reports (were available).
|Cruise||Country||Start Date||End Date|
|R/V Polarstern ANT 10-5||Germany||08-08-1992||26-09-1992|
|RRS Discovery D198||United Kingdom||11-11-1992||17-12-1992|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR0a||United Kingdom||20-11-1993||18-12-1993|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR0b||United Kingdom||13-11-1994||30-11-1994|
|R/V Hespérides 29HE19951203||Spain||03-12-1995||06-01-1996|
|R/V Hespérides 29HE19960117||Spain||17-01-1996||05-02-1996|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR16||United Kingdom||13-11-1996||07-12-1996|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR27||United Kingdom||17-12-1997||08-01-1998|
|R/V Hespérides 29HE19980730||Spain||27-07-1998||27-08-1998|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR47||United Kingdom||13-01-2000||17-02-2000|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR55||United Kingdom||21-11-2000||14-12-2000|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR67||United Kingdom||19-11-2001||17-12-2001|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR81||United Kingdom||18-12-2002||02-01-2003|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR94||United Kingdom||28-11-2003||16-12-2003|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR115||United Kingdom||01-12-2004||19-12-2004|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR139||United Kingdom||05-12-2005||12-12-2005|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR163||United Kingdom||06-12-2006||15-12-2006|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR193||United Kingdom||29-11-2007||08-12-2007|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR194||United Kingdom||12-12-2008||20-12-2008|
|RRS James Cook JC031||United Kingdom||03-02-2009||03-03-2009|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR195||United Kingdom||19-11-2009||26-11-2009|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR242||United Kingdom||06-12-2010||18-12-2000|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR276||United Kingdom||09-04-2011||26-04-2011|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR265 and JR254D||United Kingdom||27-11-2011||24-12-2011|
García, M. A., I. Bladé, A. Cruzado, Z. Velásquez, H. García, J. Puigdefàbregas and J. Sospedra, 2002: Observed variability of water properties and transports on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment SR1b section across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (C10) 3162, 10.1029/2000JC000277.
Gersonde, R., 1993: The Expedition Antarktis X/5 of RV Polarstern in 1992. Berichte zur Polarforschung, 131, 167 pp.
Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 1011880 1011892 1011911 1011923 1011935 1011947 1011959 1011960 1011972 1011984 1011996 1012011 1012023 1012035 1012047 1012059 1012060 1012072 1012084 1012096 1012103 1012115 1012127 1012139 1012140 1012152 1012164 1012176 1012188 1012207 1012219 1012220 1012232 1012244 1012256 1012268 1012281 1012293 1012300 1012312 1012324 1012336 1012348 1012361 1012373 1012385 1012397 1012404 1012416 1012428 1012441 1012465 1012477
Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - JC031 (105) JR19931120 (JR00a) (30) JR19941113 (JR0B) (29) JR19961128 (JR16) (29) JR19971217 (JR27) (53) JR20000113 (JR47) (29) JR20001121 (JR55) (31) JR20021224 (JR81) (32) JR20031211 (JR94) (30) JR20041201 (JR111, JR115) (35) JR20071129 (JR171, JR193, JR196, JR212) (32) JR20081212 (JR194, JR197) (30) JR20091118 (JR195, JR198) (33) JR20101205 (JR242) (9) JR20110409 (JR276) (15)
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|