Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 703552
CTD Oxygen Sensor Data
Trials were conducted of a new dissolved oxygen sensor designed by SOC and the University of Southampton Chemistry Department.
The trials showed up various issues that were to be considered ashore. In particular, flow rate, the robustness of manufacture and the up/down effects. Heavily-smoothed signals showed generally realistic variation with known climatological dissolved oxygen content.
Further information on the sensor can be found in the Cruise Report p.52.
Two CTDs were used during the cruise, DEEP03 and DEEP04.
DEEP03 was used for stations 1-18, 21-22 and 33-34.
DEEP04 was used for stations 19-20 and 23-32.
Stations 001-018 were completed using DEEP03 (conductivity cell s/n L53)
Bottle - CTD conductivities had a large systematic station by station drift, such that the CTD was reading higher conductivities on subsequent stations. On stations 016-018 upcast salinities were higher than on downcast and the downcast temperature/salinity (T/S) had a different shape to the upcast T/S.
Stations 019 and 020 were completed using DEEP04.
For both stations the upcast was saltier and had a different T/S shape relative to the downcast.
Stations 021 and 022 were completed using DEEP03 with a new conductivity cell (s/n Q47).
Both stations showed a large drift to fresher salinities throughout the casts, possibly related to the new cell.
Stations 023 to 032 were completed using DEEP04.
Behaviour seemed to have settled so that down and upcasts had the same T/S shape.
Stations 033 and 034 were completed using DEEP03 (with conductivity cells s/n Q47 and s/n G149).
Profiles had large salinity drifts to fresher salinities.
Post-cruise calibration revealed that the difference in temperatures measured by DEEP03 and DEEP04 was consistent with a DEEP03 drift. Therefore, DEEP03 temperature data needed to be offset by +0.006°C.
It is not apparent whether the temperature correction has been applied to the data.
The salinity was calibrated to bottles and therefore did not require adjustment for the temperature offset
For stations 1, 3-7, 9-17, 19-20, 23-26, 28-34 the transmittance values were very noisy in places, with data spikes of different sizes. Only the large data spikes were flagged.
Full details of the quality issues relating to the CTD can be found in the Cruise Report.
Public domain data
These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.
The recommended acknowledgment is
"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."
National Marine Facilities Microelectrode Oxygen Sensor
The Microelectrode Oxygen Sensor is a non-membrane dissolved oxygen sensor developed by the Ocean Engineering Division of National Marine Facilities (NMF) at the National Oceanography Centre, and the Electro-Chemistry Group at the University of Southampton Chemistry Department. The sensor is suitable for marine applications. It was first used in 2000 and development is ongoing.
The fundamental parts of the sensor are a platinum microelectrode and a counter electrode (thus far composed of copper). A measurement potential is applied to the microelectrode relative to the counter electrode. This leads to reduction of dissolved oxygen at the microelectrode and produces a current proportional to the number of oxygen molecules at that electrode.
The sensor is suitable for operation on a CTD system as it is free from the pressure effects (e.g. slow response, drift and hysteresis) typically encountered when using oxygen sensors that employ a membrane. Its short response time (approximately 1 second) also makes it suitable for deployment on CTDs and oceanographic undulators. The sensor includes both analogue voltage and serial digital (RS 232) outputs.
The electrode surface is reconditioned by applying a cleaning potential to the microelectrode at which oxidation occurs. This minimises drift and the effects of bio-fouling.
Early versions of the instrument applied the measurement potential for up to 30 seconds, with sampling starting approximately one second after the potential was applied. The sensor response to oxygen remained almost constant for a given concentration and data could be sampled at frequencies exceeding 1 Hz.
However, the sensor proved to be very sensitive to fluctuations in flow, leading to apparent noise in the data. In an attempt to address this, various changes were made to the functionality:
Initially, the instrument used a mesoporous layer to increase the surface area of the microelectrode, but this proved unstable.
The mesoporous layer was replaced by a stop-flow system which pumped water in to a very small chamber, with measurements being taken while the water was still. This significantly improved results but the sensor was still affected by small convection currents.
The current version of the sensor only applies the measurement potential for a few 10s of milliseconds and data are collected at approximately 1 Hz in an attempt to minimise the effects of convection currents.
The latest development is a very small sensor head containing an array of microelectrodes (currently an array of five) that work together. The counter electrode consists of silver or silver chloride. This is currently undergoing trials and is yet to be deployed on a CTD profiler.
CTD Unit and Auxiliary Sensors
|Instrument||Manufacturer||Model||Serial number||Last calibration date||Comments|
|CTD||Neil Brown||MkIIIc||DEEP03||August 2000||-|
|Pressure Meter||SIS||unknown||P6571||August/September 2000||-|
|Oxygen Sensor||Southampton Oceanography |
Centre and the University
|E50*||n/a||Stations 001-011 (DEEP03)|
|F50*||n/a||Stations 012-014 (DEEP03)|
|B10*||n/a||Stations 015-016 (DEEP03)|
|D50*||n/a||Stations 017-018 (DEEP03)|
|C10*||n/a||Stations 019-020 (DEEP04) and 021 (DEEP03)|
|G10*||n/a||Stations 022 (DEEP03) and 023-024 (DEEP04)|
|A50*||n/a||Stations 025-032 (DEEP04)|
|B10*||n/a||Stations 033-034 (DEEP03)|
* See the Cruise Report p. 52-55 for more details on the Oxygen Sensor.
Neil Brown MK3 CTD
The Neil Brown MK3 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiler consists of an integral unit containing pressure, temperature and conductivity sensors with an optional dissolved oxygen sensor in a pressure-hardened casing. The most widely used variant in the 1980s and 1990s was the MK3B. An upgrade to this, the MK3C, was developed to meet the requirements of the WOCE project.
The MK3C includes a low hysteresis, titanium strain gauge pressure transducer. The transducer temperature is measured separately, allowing correction for the effects of temperature on pressure measurements. The MK3C conductivity cell features a free flow, internal field design that eliminates ducted pumping and is not affected by external metallic objects such as guard cages and external sensors.
Additional optional sensors include pH and a pressure-temperature fluorometer. The instrument is no longer in production, but is supported (repair and calibration) by General Oceanics.
These specification apply to the MK3C version.
3200 m (optional)
|-3 to 32°C||1 to 6.5 S cm-1|
0.03% FS < 1 msec
0.003°C < 30 msec
0.0001 S cm-1
0.0003 S cm-1 < 30 msec
Further details can be found in the specification sheet.
Chelsea Technologies Group ALPHAtracka and ALPHAtracka II transmissometers
The Chelsea Technologies Group ALPHAtracka (the Mark I) and its successor, the ALPHAtracka II (the Mark II), are both accurate (< 0.3 % fullscale) transmissometers that measure the beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm. Green (565 nm), yellow (590 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelength variants are available on special order.
The instrument consists of a Transmitter/Reference Assembly and a Detector Assembly aligned and spaced apart by an open support frame. The housing and frame are both manufactured in titanium and are pressure rated to 6000 m depth.
The Transmitter/Reference housing is sealed by an end cap. Inside the housing an LED light source emits a collimated beam through a sealed window. The Detector housing is also sealed by an end cap. A signal photodiode is placed behind a sealed window to receive the collimated beam from the Transmitter.
The primary difference between the ALPHAtracka and ALPHAtracka II is that the Alphatracka II is implemented with surface-mount technology; this has enabled a much smaller diameter pressure housing to be used while retaining exactly the same optical train as in the Mark I. Data from the Mark II version are thus fully compatible with that already obtained with the Mark I. The performance of the Mark II is further enhanced by two electronic developments from Chelsea Technologies Group - firstly, all items are locked in a signal nulling loop of near infinite gain and, secondly, the signal output linearity is inherently defined by digital circuitry only.
Among other advantages noted above, these features ensure that the optical intensity of the Mark II, indicated by the output voltage, is accurately represented by a straight line interpolation between a reading near full-scale under known conditions and a zero reading when blanked off.
For optimum measurements in a wide range of environmental conditions, the Mark I and Mark II are available in 5 cm, 10 cm and 25 cm path length versions. Output is default factory set to 2.5 volts but can be adjusted to 5 volts on request.
Further details about the Mark II instrument are available from the Chelsea Technologies Group ALPHAtrackaII specification sheet.
The data arrived at BODC as Pstar files, representing all of the CTD casts taken during the cruise. These were reformatted to the internal QXF format. The following table shows how the variables were mapped to the appropriate BODC parameter codes.
|Pressure||dbar||Pressure exerted by the water column||PRESPR01||dbar||Calibrated by originator.|
|Temperature||°C||Temperature of the water column||TEMPCC01||°C||Calibrated by originator.|
|Potential Temperature||°C||-||-||-||Derived parameter, not retained by BODC|
|Salinity||psu||Practical salinity of the water column||PSALCC01||psu||Calibrated against bottle data, by Originator|
|Conductivity||mmho/cm||Electrical conductivity of the water body by in-situ conductivity cell and calibration against independent measurements||CNCLCCI1||S m-1||Calibrated against bottle data, by Originator|
|Transmittance||volts||Instrument output (voltage) by transmissometer||TVLTZZ01||volts||Calibrated by originator.|
|Altimetry||m||Height above bed in the water column||-||-||Not retained by BODC, as it is a duplicate vertical co-ordinate, of lower resolution than pressure.|
|Dissolved oxygen||volts||Instrument output (voltage) by in-situ oxygen microelectrode||OXYVLTN1||volts||Trials of a new sensor|
|Dissolved oxygen||volts||Instrument output (voltage) by in-situ oxygen microelectrode||OXYVLTN2||volts||Trials of a new sensor|
The reformatted data were visualised using the in-house EDSERPLO software. Suspect data were marked by adding an appropriate quality control flag.
Originator's Data Processing
A total of 34 full depth CTD stations were completed during JR55. Salinity samples were drawn on all of the stations for calibrating the CTD.
Raw CTD data were captured and stored to the hard disk of the CTD acquisition PC. These data were also recorded directly from the CTD deck unit onto the SOC DAPS (Data Acquisition Processing Software) system. DAPS used routines for one second despiking and averaging of the raw 25Hz data.
DAPS stored two ASCII files for each cast, one for CTD data and another for the bottle firing data.
Nearing the end of JR55, frequent "data time outs" and "frame sync errors" for CTD led to data loss for some of the casts in the DAPS ASCII files.
A description of the CTD calibrations applied to each instrument are described below.
Temperatures were reported in ITS-90.
- T68 = 1.00024 x T90
Raw temperatures were scaled according to:
- Traw = 0.0005 Traw
then calibrated using the coefficients provided by Ocean Scientific International (OSI) for DEEP03 and DEEP04,
- DEEP03: T = -1.86750 + 0.992088 Traw
DEEP04: T = 0.12306 + 0.999249 Traw
Due to a lag between the conductivity and temperature sensor measurements the time rate of change of temperature was used to "speed up" the temperature measurements according to,
- T = T + τ δ T / δ T
where the rate of change of temperature is determined over a one second interval. Estimates of τ from Cunningham (2000) were used.
- DEEP03: τ = 0.25
DEEP04: τ = 0.20
Raw pressure measurements were first scaled according to:
- Praw = 0.1 Praw
then calibrated using the coefficients provided by Ocean Scientific International (OSI) for DEEP03 and DEEP04,
- DEEP03: P = -39.7 + 1.07439 Praw
DEEP04: P = -36.9 + 1.07330 Praw
Following observations of pressure before and after each cast for DEEP03 and DEEP04 it was evident that a correction was required to set pressure readings to zero. The adjustments made were-1.8 dbar and -7.6 dbar for DEEP03 and DEEP04 respectively, changing the above coefficients to
- DEEP03: P = -37.9 + 1.07439 Praw
DEEP04: P = -29.3 + 1.07330 Praw
The offset was determined by taking the mean pressure values before entering the water and on deck after each cast and calculating the mean pressure. The mean pressure was used to adjust the pressure offset. No relationship between pressure offset and temperature was found.
Raw conductivities were scaled according to:
- Craw = 0.001 Craw
then calibrated using the coefficients provided by Ocean Scientific International (OSI) for DEEP03 and DEEP04,
- DEEP03: C = -0.01851 + 0.94717 Craw
DEEP04: C = -0.07645 + 0.96242 Craw
This was followed by the cell material deformation correction
- C = C x [1 + α x (T - T0) + β x (P - P0)]
where the coefficients for the cell material are: α = -6.5E-6°C-1 , β = 1.5E-8dbar-1 , T0 = 15°C and P0 = 0dbar.
Further adjustments to the conductivity offsets were determined using bottle samples. See the Cruise Report (Cunningham, 2001) for further details.
Transmittance and Altimetry
Transmittance was converted to voltages; this is a calibration of the voltage digitiser in the ctd.
- DEEP03: V = -5.027 + 1.534 x 10-4 Vraw - 3.704 x 10-10 Vraw 2
DEEP04: V = -5.656 + 1.72669 x 10-4 Vraw - 2.24 x 10-12 Vraw 2
The altimeter had the following calibration applied
- DEEP03: alt = -249.7 + 7.62 x 10-3 altraw - 1.04 x 10-10 altraw 2
DEEP04: alt = -234.5 + 7.16 x 10-3 altraw - 9.48 x 10-11 altraw 2
Cunningham, S.A. (2000) RRS Discovery Cruise 242, 07 Sep-06 Oct 1999. Atlantic - Norwegian Exchanges. Southampton, UK, Southampton Oceanography Centre, 128pp.
Cunningham, S.A. (2001) RRS James Clark Ross Cruise JR55, 21 Nov-14 Dec 2000. Drake Passage repeat hydrography: WOCE Southern Section 1b - Burdwood Bank to Elephant Island. Southampton, UK, Southampton Oceanography Centre, 75pp.
World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a major international experiment which made measurements and undertook modelling studies of the deep oceans in order to provide a much improved understanding of the role of ocean circulation in changing and ameliorating the Earth's climate.
WOCE had two major goals:
Goal 1. To develop models to predict climate and to collect the data necessary to test them.
Goal 2. To determine the representativeness of the Goal 1 observations and to deduce cost effective means of determining long-term changes in ocean circulation.
Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR)
CLIVAR is an international research programme investigating climate variability and predictability on different time-scales and the response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing. Climate variability, its extremes and possible future changes, has a strong impact on mankind. CLIVAR seeks to better understand and predict our climate in order to take precautions and to reduce impacts of climate variability and change on our planet. CLIVAR is one of the major components of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). It started in 1995 and will have a lifetime of 15 years.
The specific objectives of CLIVAR are:
- To describe and understand the physical processes responsible for climate variability and predictability on seasonal, interannual, decadal, and centennial time-scales
- To coordinate the collection and analysis of observations and the development and application of models of the coupled climate system, in cooperation with other relevant climate-research and observing programmes
- To extend the record of climate variability over the time-scales of interest through the assembly of quality controlled palaeoclimatic and instrumental data sets
- To extend the range and accuracy of seasonal to interannual climate prediction through the development of global coupled predictive models
- To understand and predict the response of the climate system to increases of radiatively active gases and aerosols and to compare these predictions to the observed climate record in order to detect the anthropogenic modification of the natural climate signal
|Cruise Name||JR20001121 (JR55)|
|Principal Scientist(s)||Stuart A Cunningham (Southampton Oceanography Centre)|
|Ship||RRS James Clark Ross|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||Drake Passage - WOCE SR1b|
World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Southern Repeat Section 1B - Falkland Islands to Elephant Island
WOCE Southern Repeat Section 1B is a section across Drake Passage in the South Atlantic Ocean. The nominal end points of the section (to date) are at 52° 55.74' S, 58° 00.00' W (at the south of the Falkland Islands) and 61° 03.05' S, 54° 33.10' W (off Elephant Island at the north end of the Antarctic Peninsula).
The section was first occupied by the R/V Polarstern in 1992 (Gersonde, 1993). The first UK occupation of SR1b followed on RRS Discovery later the same year. The National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (formerly known as Southampton Oceanography Centre), in collaboration with the British Antarctic Survey, have occupied the section most years since 1993 on the RRS James Clark Ross. Additionally, there were three Spanish occupations on R/V Hespérides in February 1995, 1996 and 1998 (Garcia et al., 2002). A Drake Passage summary report for RRS James Clark Ross cruises between 1993 - 2000 has been produced.
A table of cruises which occupied SR1b is presented below with links to the relevant cruise reports (were available).
|Cruise||Country||Start Date||End Date|
|R/V Polarstern ANT 10-5||Germany||08-08-1992||26-09-1992|
|RRS Discovery D198||United Kingdom||11-11-1992||17-12-1992|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR0a||United Kingdom||20-11-1993||18-12-1993|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR0b||United Kingdom||13-11-1994||30-11-1994|
|R/V Hespérides 29HE19951203||Spain||03-12-1995||06-01-1996|
|R/V Hespérides 29HE19960117||Spain||17-01-1996||05-02-1996|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR16||United Kingdom||13-11-1996||07-12-1996|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR27||United Kingdom||17-12-1997||08-01-1998|
|R/V Hespérides 29HE19980730||Spain||27-07-1998||27-08-1998|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR47||United Kingdom||13-01-2000||17-02-2000|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR55||United Kingdom||21-11-2000||14-12-2000|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR67||United Kingdom||19-11-2001||17-12-2001|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR81||United Kingdom||18-12-2002||02-01-2003|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR94||United Kingdom||28-11-2003||16-12-2003|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR115||United Kingdom||01-12-2004||19-12-2004|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR139||United Kingdom||05-12-2005||12-12-2005|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR163||United Kingdom||06-12-2006||15-12-2006|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR193||United Kingdom||29-11-2007||08-12-2007|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR194||United Kingdom||12-12-2008||20-12-2008|
|RRS James Cook JC031||United Kingdom||03-02-2009||03-03-2009|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR195||United Kingdom||19-11-2009||26-11-2009|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR242||United Kingdom||06-12-2010||18-12-2000|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR276||United Kingdom||09-04-2011||26-04-2011|
|RRS James Clark Ross JR265 and JR254D||United Kingdom||27-11-2011||24-12-2011|
García, M. A., I. Bladé, A. Cruzado, Z. Velásquez, H. García, J. Puigdefàbregas and J. Sospedra, 2002: Observed variability of water properties and transports on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment SR1b section across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (C10) 3162, 10.1029/2000JC000277.
Gersonde, R., 1993: The Expedition Antarktis X/5 of RV Polarstern in 1992. Berichte zur Polarforschung, 131, 167 pp.
Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 703287 703299 703306 703318 703331 703343 703355 703367 703379 703380 703392 703411 703423 703435 703447 703459 703460 703472 703484 703496 703503 703515 703527 703539 703540 703564 703576 703588 703607 703619
Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - JC031 (105) JR19931120 (JR00a) (30) JR19941113 (JR0B) (29) JR19961128 (JR16) (29) JR19971217 (JR27) (54) JR20000113 (JR47) (29) JR20001121 (JR55) (30) JR20021224 (JR81) (32) JR20031211 (JR94) (30) JR20041201 (JR111, JR115) (35) JR20071129 (JR171, JR193, JR196, JR212) (32) JR20081212 (JR194, JR197) (30) JR20091118 (JR195, JR198) (33) JR20101205 (JR242) (9) JR20110409 (JR276) (15)
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||Drake Passage|
|Latitude||59° 0.00' S|
|Longitude||62° 0.00' W|
|Water depth below MSL|
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE, 1990-1998) was a major international experiment which made measurements and undertook modelling studies of the deep oceans in order to provide a much improved understanding of the role of ocean circulation in changing and ameliorating the Earth's climate.
The Drake Passage is the narrowest constriction of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) - the largest current in the world and connects all three major oceanic basins both horizontally and vertically, thus being a key control in the global overturning circulation.Within the Drake Passage, two repeat hydrographic sections (SR1 and SR1b) were established by WOCE. These were designed to extend measurements collected earlier by the International Southern Ocean Studies (ISOS) programme and have continued beyond the WOCE time-frame.
The original section was SR1 (which also covers part of the A21 one time survey track). Subsequently, the section was shifted to the east (and designated SR1b) in order for it to lie on a satellite ground track as illustrated in the image below.
In addition to the hydrographic measurements, UK research in Drake Passage also includes a network of coastal and deep tide gauges, analysis of satellite altimeter data, and state-of-the-art global numerical modeling.
Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 703287 703299 703306 703318 703331 703343 703355 703367 703379 703380 703392 703411 703423 703435 703447 703459 703460 703472 703484 703496 703503 703515 703527 703539 703540 703564 703576 703588 703607 703619 703620
Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - JC031 (247) JC054 (18) JR19931120 (JR00a) (30) JR19941113 (JR0B) (29) JR19961128 (JR16) (29) JR20000113 (JR47) (29) JR20001121 (JR55) (31) JR20021224 (JR81) (32) JR20031211 (JR94) (30) JR20041201 (JR111, JR115) (35) JR20050124 (JR112, JR113) (13) JR20060216 (JR136, JR137) (6) JR20061215 (JR155) (6) JR20071129 (JR171, JR193, JR196, JR212) (32) JR20091118 (JR195, JR198) (33) JR20101205 (JR242) (9) JR20110409 (JR276) (15) RATS/CTD100 (1) RATS/CTD103 (1) RATS/CTD106 (1) RATS/CTD108 (1) RATS/CTD111 (1) RATS/CTD113 (1) RATS/CTD115 (1) RATS/CTD120 (1) RATS/CTD122 (1) RATS/CTD124 (1) RATS/CTD126 (1) RATS/CTD129 (1) RATS/CTD131 (1) RATS/CTD133 (1) RATS/CTD136 (1) RATS/CTD138 (1) RATS/CTD140 (1) RATS/CTD142 (1) RATS/CTD145 (1) RATS/CTD147 (1) RATS/CTD150 (1) RATS/CTD151 (1) RATS/CTD153 (1) RATS/CTD154 (1) RATS/CTD156 (1) RATS/CTD157 (1) RATS/CTD160 (1) RATS/CTD163 (1) RATS/CTD164 (1) RATS/CTD166 (1) RATS/CTD167 (1) RATS/CTD169 (1) RATS/CTD170 (1) RATS/CTD173 (1) RATS/CTD175 (1) RATS/CTD177 (1) RATS/CTD180 (1) RATS/CTD182 (1) RATS/CTD184 (1) RATS/CTD186 (1) RATS/CTD189 (1) RATS/CTD191 (1) RATS/CTD193 (1) RATS/CTD195 (1) RATS/CTD198 (1) RATS/CTD200 (1) RATS/CTD202 (1) RATS/CTD204 (1) RATS/CTD206 (1) RATS/CTD208 (1) RATS/CTD210 (1) RATS/CTD214 (1) RATS/CTD217 (1) RATS/CTD219 (1) RATS/CTD221 (1) RATS/CTD223 (1) RATS/CTD225 (1) RATS/CTD227 (1) RATS/CTD230 (1) RATS/CTD232 (1) RATS/CTD234 (1) RATS/CTD237 (1) RATS/CTD239 (1) RATS/CTD241 (1) RATS/CTD243 (1) RATS/CTD245 (1) RATS/CTD247 (1) RATS/CTD249 (1) RATS/CTD251 (1) RATS/CTD254 (1) RATS/CTD256 (1) RATS/CTD258 (1) RATS/CTD260 (1) RATS/CTD262 (1) RATS/CTD265 (1) RATS/CTD267 (1) RATS/CTD269 (1) RATS/CTD271 (1) RATS/CTD273 (1) RATS/CTD275 (1) RATS/CTD277 (1) RATS/CTD281 (1) RATS/CTD283 (1) RATS/CTD285 (1) RATS/CTD287 (1) RATS/CTD289 (1) RATS/CTD291 (1) RATS/CTD293 (1) RATS/CTD295 (1) RATS/CTD297 (1) RATS/CTD301 (1) RATS/CTD305 (1) RATS/CTD307 (1) RATS/CTD309 (1) RATS/CTD311 (1) RATS/CTD313 (1) RATS/CTD315 (1) RATS/CTD317 (1) RATS/CTD319 (1) RATS/CTD321 (1) RATS/CTD323 (1) RATS/CTD325 (1) RATS/CTD327 (1) RATS/CTD329 (1) RATS/CTD331 (1) RATS/CTD335 (1) RATS/CTD337 (1) RATS/CTD341 (1) RATS/CTD343 (1) RATS/CTD345 (1) RATS/CTD347 (1) RATS/CTD351 (1) RATS/CTD353 (1) RATS/CTD355 (1) RATS/CTD357 (1) RATS/CTD361 (1) RATS/CTD363 (1) RATS/CTD365 (1) RATS/CTD373 (1) RATS/CTD375 (1) RATS/CTD377 (1) RATS/CTD379 (1) RATS/CTD381 (1) RATS/CTD383 (1) RATS/CTD385 (1) RATS/CTD387 (1) RATS/CTD389 (1) RATS/CTD395 (1) RATS/CTD397 (1) RATS/CTD399 (1) RATS/CTD401 (1) RATS/CTD403 (1) RATS/CTD405 (1) RATS/CTD407 (1) RATS/CTD409 (1) RATS/CTD411 (1) RATS/CTD415 (1) RATS/CTD417 (1) RATS/CTD419 (1) RATS/CTD423 (1) RATS/CTD425 (1) RATS/CTD427 (1) RATS/CTD429 (1) RATS/CTD43 (1) RATS/CTD431 (1) RATS/CTD433 (1) RATS/CTD437 (1) RATS/CTD439 (1) RATS/CTD443 (1) RATS/CTD445 (1) RATS/CTD461 (1) RATS/CTD463 (1) RATS/CTD465 (1) RATS/CTD467 (1) RATS/CTD469 (1) RATS/CTD471 (1) RATS/CTD473 (1) RATS/CTD475 (1) RATS/CTD477 (1) RATS/CTD479 (1) RATS/CTD481 (1) RATS/CTD483 (1) RATS/CTD485 (1) RATS/CTD487 (1) RATS/CTD489 (1) RATS/CTD49 (1) RATS/CTD491 (1) RATS/CTD493 (1) RATS/CTD495 (1) RATS/CTD497 (1) RATS/CTD499 (1) RATS/CTD501 (1) RATS/CTD503 (1) RATS/CTD505 (1) RATS/CTD507 (1) RATS/CTD509 (1) RATS/CTD51 (1) RATS/CTD511 (1) RATS/CTD513 (1) RATS/CTD515 (1) RATS/CTD517 (1) RATS/CTD519 (1) RATS/CTD521 (1) RATS/CTD523 (1) RATS/CTD525 (1) RATS/CTD527 (1) RATS/CTD529 (1) RATS/CTD53 (1) RATS/CTD531 (1) RATS/CTD534 (1) RATS/CTD536 (1) RATS/CTD538 (1) RATS/CTD540 (1) RATS/CTD542 (1) RATS/CTD545 (1) RATS/CTD547 (1) RATS/CTD549 (1) RATS/CTD55 (1) RATS/CTD551 (1) RATS/CTD553 (1) RATS/CTD555 (1) RATS/CTD557 (1) RATS/CTD559 (1) RATS/CTD561 (1) RATS/CTD563 (1) RATS/CTD565 (1) RATS/CTD567 (1) RATS/CTD569 (1) RATS/CTD571 (1) RATS/CTD573 (1) RATS/CTD575 (1) RATS/CTD577 (1) RATS/CTD579 (1) RATS/CTD58 (1) RATS/CTD581 (1) RATS/CTD583 (1) RATS/CTD585 (1) RATS/CTD587 (1) RATS/CTD589 (1) RATS/CTD591 (1) RATS/CTD593 (1) RATS/CTD595 (1) RATS/CTD597 (1) RATS/CTD599 (1) RATS/CTD60 (1) RATS/CTD601 (1) RATS/CTD603 (1) RATS/CTD605 (1) RATS/CTD607 (1) RATS/CTD609 (1) RATS/CTD611 (1) RATS/CTD613 (1) RATS/CTD615 (1) RATS/CTD617 (1) RATS/CTD619 (1) RATS/CTD62 (1) RATS/CTD621 (1) RATS/CTD623 (1) RATS/CTD625 (1) RATS/CTD627 (1) RATS/CTD629 (1) RATS/CTD631 (1) RATS/CTD633 (1) RATS/CTD635 (1) RATS/CTD637 (1) RATS/CTD639 (1) RATS/CTD64 (1) RATS/CTD654 (1) RATS/CTD66 (1) RATS/CTD669 (1) RATS/CTD678 (1) RATS/CTD68 (1) RATS/CTD687 (1) RATS/CTD695 (1) RATS/CTD70 (1) RATS/CTD705 (1) RATS/CTD72 (1) RATS/CTD722 (1) RATS/CTD724 (1) RATS/CTD727 (1) RATS/CTD729 (1) RATS/CTD731 (1) RATS/CTD733 (1) RATS/CTD735 (1) RATS/CTD737 (1) RATS/CTD739 (1) RATS/CTD74 (1) RATS/CTD741 (1) RATS/CTD743 (1) RATS/CTD745 (1) RATS/CTD747 (1) RATS/CTD749 (1) RATS/CTD751 (1) RATS/CTD753 (1) RATS/CTD755 (1) RATS/CTD757 (1) RATS/CTD759 (1) RATS/CTD761 (1) RATS/CTD763 (1) RATS/CTD765 (1) RATS/CTD767 (1) RATS/CTD77 (1) RATS/CTD771 (1) RATS/CTD773 (1) RATS/CTD775 (1) RATS/CTD777 (1) RATS/CTD779 (1) RATS/CTD781 (1) RATS/CTD783 (1) RATS/CTD785 (1) RATS/CTD787 (1) RATS/CTD789 (1) RATS/CTD795 (1) RATS/CTD797 (1) RATS/CTD799 (1) RATS/CTD80 (1) RATS/CTD801 (1) RATS/CTD803 (1) RATS/CTD805 (1) RATS/CTD807 (1) RATS/CTD809 (1) RATS/CTD811 (1) RATS/CTD813 (1) RATS/CTD817 (1) RATS/CTD819 (1) RATS/CTD82 (1) RATS/CTD821 (1) RATS/CTD823 (1) RATS/CTD825 (1) RATS/CTD827 (1) RATS/CTD829 (1) RATS/CTD831 (1) RATS/CTD833 (1) RATS/CTD837 (1) RATS/CTD839 (1) RATS/CTD84 (1) RATS/CTD841 (1) RATS/CTD843 (1) RATS/CTD845 (1) RATS/CTD847 (1) RATS/CTD849 (1) RATS/CTD851 (1) RATS/CTD853 (1) RATS/CTD855 (1) RATS/CTD857 (1) RATS/CTD859 (1) RATS/CTD861 (1) RATS/CTD863 (1) RATS/CTD865 (1) RATS/CTD867 (1) RATS/CTD869 (1) RATS/CTD87 (1) RATS/CTD871 (1) RATS/CTD873 (1) RATS/CTD879 (1) RATS/CTD881 (1) RATS/CTD883 (1) RATS/CTD885 (1) RATS/CTD887 (1) RATS/CTD889 (1) RATS/CTD89 (1) RATS/CTD891 (1) RATS/CTD893 (1) RATS/CTD895 (1) RATS/CTD897 (1) RATS/CTD899 (1) RATS/CTD901 (1) RATS/CTD903 (1) RATS/CTD905 (1) RATS/CTD907 (1) RATS/CTD909 (1) RATS/CTD91 (1) RATS/CTD913 (1) RATS/CTD915 (1) RATS/CTD917 (1) RATS/CTD919 (1) RATS/CTD921 (1) RATS/CTD923 (1) RATS/CTD925 (1) RATS/CTD927 (1) RATS/CTD929 (1) RATS/CTD93 (1) RATS/CTD931 (1) RATS/CTD933 (1) RATS/CTD935 (1) RATS/CTD937 (1) RATS/CTD939 (1) RATS/CTD941 (1) RATS/CTD943 (1) RATS/CTD945 (1) RATS/CTD947 (1) RATS/CTD949 (1) RATS/CTD951 (1) RATS/CTD953 (1) RATS/CTD955 (1) RATS/CTD957 (1) RATS/CTD959 (1) RATS/CTD96 (1) RATS/CTD961 (1) RATS/CTD963 (1) RATS/CTD965 (1) RATS/CTD967 (1) RATS/CTD969 (1) RATS/CTD971 (1) RATS/CTD973 (1) RATS/CTD975 (1) RATS/CTD977 (1) RATS/CTD979 (1) RATS/CTD98 (1) RATS/CTD981 (1) RATS/CTD983 (1) RATS/CTD985 (1) RATS/CTD987 (1) RATS/CTD989 (1) RATS/CTD991 (1)
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|