Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 772429
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Public domain data
These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.
The recommended acknowledgment is
"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."
Sea-Bird SBE 16plus SEACAT with RS-232 Interface
The SBE 16plus is a high accuracy conductivity and temperature recorder (pressure optional). It is designed for moorings and other long-duration, fixed-site deployments. The SBE 16plus has 6 amplified A/D input channels and conditioned power of 500 ma is avaliable for auxiliary sensors, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, fluorescence, PAR etc.
|Conductivity (S m-1)||Optional Pressure - strain Gauge||Optional Pressure - Quartz|
|Measurement Range||-5 to +35||0 to 9||0 to full scale range: 20 / 100 / 350 / 600 / 1000 / 2000 / 3500 / 7000 metres||0 to full scale range: 20 / 60 / 130 / 200 / 270 / 680 / 1400 / 2000 / 4200 / 7000 / 10500 metres|
|Initial accuracy||0.005||0.0005||0.1% of full scale range||0.02% of full scale range|
|Typical Stability||0.0002 month-1||0.0003 month-1||0.05% of full scale range||0.025% of full scale range|
|Resolution||0.0001||0.00005 typical||0.002% of full scale range||Depends on sample integration, 0.0006% of full scale range for 1 s integration|
|Sensor Calibration||+1 to +32||0 to 9; physical calibration over range 2.6 to 65 m-1 plus zero conductivity (air)||Ambient pressure to full scale range in 5 steps||Ambient pressure to full scale range in 5 steps|
|Memory||8 MB FLASH memory|
|Data Storage||Converted temperature and conductivity: 6 bytes per sample |
Time: 4 bytes per sample
Pressure (optional): 5 bytes per sample
|Real-Time Clock||Watch-crystal type 32,768 Hz; accuracy (±1 minutes/year)|
|Standard Internal Batteries||9 alkaline D-cells. Provides sufficient capacity for 145,000 samples for a CTD and 5M pump|
|Housing||Titanium pressure case rated at 7000 metres|
|Weight (without pressure)||In water: 8.6 kg |
In air: 13.7 kg
Further information can be found via the following link:Official SBE 16plus Manual
SeaBird 16plus Data Processing
Data Originator's Processing
The following procedures were carried out before the data were supplied to BODC.
Data were downloaded from the instrument logger, and factory calibrations were applied to the pressure, conductivity and temperature channels and to the turbidity sensor when fitted.
BODC Data Processing and Quality Control
Pressure sensors: the data record was compared with the pressure computed from the water depth on deployment and rig geometry. The time series was visually screened for evidence of rig movement (e.g. trawling) and excessive leaning (perhaps due to strong currents).
Temperature sensors: the data record was compared with other temperature data taken in the vicinity and checked for agreement within a few tenths of a degree Celsius. Obvious spikes were flagged. Periods of excessively noisy data were noted.
Conductivity sensors: salinity (PSS-78) was computed during transfer using the Matlab sw_salt routine:
- cond = in-situ conductivity
- sw_c3515 = Matlab function that returns conductivity at Salinity = 35, Temperature = 15 degrees Celsius (ITPS-68) and Pressure = 0 db
- temp = in-situ temperature (ITS-90)
- 1.00024 = factor to convert temperature from ITS-90 into IPTS-68 (http://www.ices.dk/ocean/procedures/its.htm), which is required for the calculation of salinity using this routine.
- pres = pressure. If pressure was present as a channel, the routine used pressure from this source. However, users should note: If pressure was not present, a nominal pressure was computed from the instrument depth and latitude and this constant was used in the calculation of salinity.
Where turbidity sensors were fitted: the data record was compared with other turbidity data taken in the vicinity and checked for agreement. Obvious spikes were flagged along with any periods where the instrument became saturated (due to bio-fouling etc). Periods of excessively noisy data were noted.
General Data Screening carried out by BODC
BODC screen both the series header qualifying information and the parameter values in the data cycles themselves.
Header information is inspected for:
- Irregularities such as unfeasible values
- Inconsistencies between related information, for example:
- Times for instrument deployment and for start/end of data series
- Length of record and the number of data cycles/cycle interval
- Parameters expected and the parameters actually present in the data cycles
- Originator's comments on meter/mooring performance and data quality
Documents are written by BODC highlighting irregularities which cannot be resolved.
Data cycles are inspected using time or depth series plots of all parameters. Currents are additionally inspected using vector scatter plots and time series plots of North and East velocity components. These presentations undergo intrinsic and extrinsic screening to detect infeasible values within the data cycles themselves and inconsistencies as seen when comparing characteristics of adjacent data sets displaced with respect to depth, position or time. Values suspected of being of non-oceanographic origin may be tagged with the BODC flag denoting suspect value; the data values will not be altered.
The following types of irregularity, each relying on visual detection in the plot, are amongst those which may be flagged as suspect:
- Spurious data at the start or end of the record.
- Obvious spikes occurring in periods free from meteorological disturbance.
- A sequence of constant values in consecutive data cycles.
If a large percentage of the data is affected by irregularities then a Problem Report will be written rather than flagging the individual suspect values. Problem Reports are also used to highlight irregularities seen in the graphical data presentations.
Inconsistencies between the characteristics of the data set and those of its neighbours are sought and, where necessary, documented. This covers inconsistencies such as the following:
- Maximum and minimum values of parameters (spikes excluded).
- The occurrence of meteorological events.
This intrinsic and extrinsic screening of the parameter values seeks to confirm the qualifying information and the source laboratory's comments on the series. In screening and collating information, every care is taken to ensure that errors of BODC making are not introduced.
Oceans 2025 - The NERC Marine Centres' Strategic Research Programme 2007-2012
Who funds the programme?
The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funds the Oceans 2025 programme, which was originally planned in the context of NERC's 2002-2007 strategy and later realigned to NERC's subsequent strategy (Next Generation Science for Planet Earth; NERC 2007).
Who is involved in the programme?
The Oceans 2025 programme was designed by and is to be implemented through seven leading UK marine centres. The marine centres work together in coordination and are also supported by cooperation and input from government bodies, universities and other partners. The seven marine centres are:
- National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS)
- Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML)
- Marine Biological Association (MBA)
- Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Marine Science (SAHFOS)
- Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL)
- Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS)
- Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)
Oceans2025 provides funding to three national marine facilities, which provide services to the wider UK marine community, in addition to the Oceans 2025 community. These facilities are:
- British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), hosted at POL
- Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted at POL
- Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP), hosted at SAMS
The NERC-run Strategic Ocean Funding Initiative (SOFI) provides additional support to the programme by funding additional research projects and studentships that closely complement the Oceans 2025 programme, primarily through universities.
What is the programme about?
Oceans 2025 sets out to address some key challenges that face the UK as a result of a changing marine environment. The research funded through the programme sets out to increase understanding of the size, nature and impacts of these changes, with the aim to:
- improve knowledge of how the seas behave, not just now but in the future;
- help assess what that might mean for the Earth system and for society;
- assist in developing sustainable solutions for the management of marine resources for future generations;
- enhance the research capabilities and facilities available for UK marine science.
In order to address these aims there are nine science themes supported by the Oceans 2025 programme:
- Climate, circulation and sea level (Theme 1)
- Marine biogeochemical cycles (Theme 2)
- Shelf and coastal processes (Theme 3)
- Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (Theme 4)
- Continental margins and deep ocean (Theme 5)
- Sustainable marine resources (Theme 6)
- Technology development (Theme 8)
- Next generation ocean prediction (Theme 9)
- Integration of sustained observations in the marine environment (Theme 10)
In the original programme proposal there was a theme on health and human impacts (Theme 7). The elements of this Theme have subsequently been included in Themes 3 and 9.
When is the programme active?
The programme started in April 2007 with funding for 5 years.
Brief summary of the programme fieldwork/data
Programme fieldwork and data collection are to be achieved through:
- physical, biological and chemical parameters sampling throughout the North and South Atlantic during collaborative research cruises aboard NERC's research vessels RRS Discovery, RRS James Cook and RRS James Clark Ross;
- the Continuous Plankton Recorder being deployed by SAHFOS in the North Atlantic and North Pacific on 'ships of opportunity';
- physical parameters measured and relayed in near real-time by fixed moorings and ARGO floats;
- coastal and shelf sea observatory data (Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory (LBCO) and Western Channel Observatory (WCO)) using the RV Prince Madog and RV Quest.
The data is to be fed into models for validation and future projections. Greater detail can be found in the Theme documents.
Oceans 2025 Theme 10
Oceans 2025 is a strategic marine science programme, bringing marine researchers together to increase people's knowledge of the marine environment so that they are better able to protect it for future generations.
Theme 10: Integration of Sustained Observations in the Marine Environment spans all marine domains from the sea-shore to the global ocean, providing data and knowledge on a wide range of ecosystem properties and processes (from ocean circulation to biodiversity) that are critical to understanding Earth system behaviour and identifying change. They have been developed not merely to provide long-term data sets, but to capture extreme or episodic events, and play a key role in the initialisation and validation of models. Many of these SOs will be integrated into the newly developing UK Marine Monitoring Strategy - evolving from the Defra reports Safeguarding our Seas (2002) and Charting Progress (2005), thus contributing to the underpinning knowledge for national marine stewardship. They will also contribute to the UK GOOS Strategic Plan (IACMST, 2006) and the Global Marine Assessment.
Oceans 2025 Theme 10, Sustained Observation Activity 11: Liverpool Bay and Irish Sea Coastal Observatory
Sustained, systematic observations of the ocean and continental shelf seas at appropriate time and space scales allied to numerical models are key to understanding and prediction. In shelf seas these observations address issues as fundamental as 'what is the capacity of shelf seas to absorb change?' encompassing the impacts of climate change, biological productivity and diversity, sustainable management, pollution and public health, safety at sea and extreme events. Advancing understanding of coastal processes to use and manage these resources better is challenging; important controlling processes occur over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales which cannot be simultaneously studied solely with satellite or ship-based platforms.
Considerable effort has been spent by the Proudman Oceangraphic Laboratory (POL) in the years 2001 - 2006 in setting up an integrated observational and now-cast modelling system in Liverpool Bay (see Figure), with the recent POL review stating the observatory was seen as a leader in its field and a unique 'selling' point of the laboratory. Cost benefit analysis (IACMST, 2004) shows that benefits really start to accrue after 10 years. In 2007 - 2012 exploitation of (i) the time series being acquired, (ii) the model-data synthesis and (iii) the increasingly available quantities of real-time data (e.g. river flows) can be carried out through Sustained Observation Activity (SO) 11, to provide an integrated assessment and short term forecasts of the coastal ocean state.
Overall Aims and Purpose of SO 11
- To continue and enlarge the scope of the existing coastal observatory in Liverpool Bay to routinely monitor the northern Irish Sea
- To develop the synthesis of measurements and models in the coastal ocean to optimize measurement arrays and forecast products. Driving forward shelf seas' operational oceanography with the direct objective of improving the national forecasting capability, expressed through links to the National Centre for Ocean Forecasting (NCOF)
- To exploit the long time-series of observations and model outputs to: a) identify the roles of climate and anthropogenic inputs on the coastal ocean's physical and biological functioning (including impacts of nutrient discharges, offshore renewable energy installations and fishing activity) taking into consideration the importance of events versus mean storms / waves, river discharge / variable salinity stratification / horizontal gradients; b) predict the impacts of climate change scenarios; and c) provide new insights to Irish Sea dynamics for variables either with seasonal cycles and interannual variability, or which show weak or no seasonal cycles
- To provide and maintain a 'laboratory' within which a variety of observational and model experiments can be undertaken (Oceans 2025 Themes 3, 6, 8, 9), including capture of extreme events
- Demonstrate the value of an integrated approach in assessment and forecasting
- Demonstrate the coastal observatory as a tool for marine management strategies through collaboration with the Environment Agency (EA), Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Joint Nature Conservation Commmittee (JNCC), English Nature (EN), Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD), and Local Authorities, providing management information pertinent to policy (e.g. Water Framework Directive)
Measurement and Modelling Activities
- East Mooring Site: Bottom frame with full suite of physical measurements (high frequency Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), conductivity, temperature, turbidity and fluorescence), a Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) directional wavebuoy, and a CEFAS Smartbuoy collecting surface properties including salinity, temperature, turbidity, nutrients, irradiance and chlorophyll. All transmit data in real-time via Orbcomm. The Smartbuoy also collects daily water samples.
- West Mooring Site: Bottom frame with full suite of physical measurements (high frequency ADCP, conductivity, temperature, turbidity and fluorescence), CEFAS Smartbuoy.
- Spatial Survey: Four - six week intervals (determined by biofouling of optical sensors). Spatial surveys comprise of vertical profiles of CTD, suspended particulate material (SPM), some bed sediment sampling and surface and bed nutrients, phytoplankton, zooplankton.
- Ferry: The Birkenhead - Belfast ferry samples near surface (5 m depth) temperature, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll, with data transmitted by Orbcomm. The route is scientifically varied passing through six completely different hydrodynamic regions, which significantly impact on their ecological function.
- Tide gauges: Real-time data are obtained from tide gauges operated by Mersey Docks and Harbour Company (MDHC) and the UK tide gauge network.
- Satellite imagery: Weekly composite satellite data, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean colour (chlorophyll and suspended sediment), are provided by the Remote Sensing Data Analysis Service (RSDAS) based at Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML).
- HF radar: A phased array HF radar system (a 12-16MHz WERA HF radar) measuring surface currents and waves with maximum range 75km at a resolution of 4km for sea surface currents and for 2-D wave spectra.
- Meteorology station: With web camera, located on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee Estuary
- Operational models: The Coastal Observatory uses Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System (POLCOMS), which is part of Oceans 2025 Theme 9.
More detailed information on this Work Package is available at pages 32 - 35 of the official Oceans 2025 Theme 10 document: Oceans 2025 Theme 10
IACMST., 2004. The Economics of Sustained Marine Measurements. IACMST Information Document, N0.11, Southampton: IACMST, 96 pp
|Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||2008-03-14|
|End Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||2008-04-16|
|Organization Undertaking Activity||Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (now National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool)|
|Country of Organization||United Kingdom|
|Originator's Data Activity Identifier||POLRIG1030|
|Platform Category||fixed benthic node|
Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Rig#1030
Deployment and Recovery
This rig was deployed as part of the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory during R.V. Prince Madog cruise PD07_08. All of the major mooring objectives were accomplished. However, CTD sites were missed out and both 24 hour stations aborted, due to very poor weather conditioned throughout the cruise. Work was essentially carried out during lulls between 2-3 storms during the week commencing 10 March 2008. Recovery of the rig took place during R.V. Prince Madog cruise PD09_08.
|Rig Position||53° 26.970'N 3° 38.526'W|
|Water Depth||25.3 m|
|Deployed||14 March 2008 18:30 GMT|
|Recovered||16 April 2008 15:48 GMT|
|No. of days||33|
This rig is a bottom frame comprising of the following instruments 0.5 m above the seabed; Wave Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP); Telemetry ADCP; and a SeaBird 16plus. The frame was fitted with two Benthos releases s/n 71922 - Rx 11.5 kHz, Tx 12.0 kHz release A, and s/n 67879 - Rx 11.5 kHz, Tx 12.0 kHz release B, both with a fizz link, and a spooler with 200 m of rope for recovery of the ballast weight.
|Instrument||Serial Number||Parameters Measured||Sampling Description||Comments|
|RDI Waves ADCP 600 kHz||5803||Horizontal current velocity components |
Vertical current velocity components
|Mode 1: 100 pings every 10 minutes (velocity standard deviation 0.007 m s-1). 35 x 1 m bins (2.65 - 36.65 m above the bed).||Sound velocity calculated from temperature, depth and salinity of 32. |
1 Gbyte of memory.
Clock set at 13:28:50 on 14 March 2008; delayed start at 14:00:00 on 14 March 2008.
|Sea-Bird 16plus RS232||5310||Temperature |
|Sample interval 600 s; digiquartz integration time 40 s, range 400; run pump 0.5 s, 1 s delay.||Fitted to base of frame with pumped conductivity sensor underneath. |
SeaPoint turbidity sensor 10320 taped to roll bar; set up for 0 - 125 FTU range.
Clock set at 15:35:00 on 10 March 2008; delayed start at 06:00:00 on 11 March 2008.
|RDI Telemetry ADCP 1200 kHz||0572||Horizontal current velocity components |
Vertical velocity components
|Mode 1: 100 pings every 10 minutes (velocity standard deviation 0.003 m s-1). |
30 x 1 m bins (2.15 - 31.15 m above the bed).
|Sound velocity calculated from temperature, depth and salinity of 32. |
Clock reset at 16:41:00 on 10 March; delayed start at 06:00:00 on 13 March 2008.
LinkQuest acoustic modem set for transmission of ADCP data every hour.
|Principal Scientist(s)||Phil J Knight (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory)|
|Ship||RV Prince Madog|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||Coastal Observatory Site 21|
|Latitude||53° 27.13' N|
|Longitude||3° 38.48' W|
|Water depth below MSL||25.0 m|
Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory Site 21
This station is one of 34 stations regularly visited by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL) as part of the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory. The main activity at this site are CTD profiles (since August 2002) which are taken during each site visit. This station was also the secondary mooring site (also referred to as Site B) for the Coastal Observatory project between April 2005 and March 2010. After March 2010 the moorings were moved to site 20. The station lies within a box of mean water depth 24 m with the following co-ordinates:
|Box Corner||Latitude (+ve North)||Longitude (+ve East)|
The position of this station relative to the other POL Coastal Observatory sites can be seen from the figure below.
Mooring Deployment History
|Rig Type||Typical Instruments||Rig IDs||Comment|
|Frame||ADCP, CTD, OBS, Telemetry ADCP||1088, 1092, 1096, 1100, 1104, 1107, 1111||January - December|
|SmartBuoy||CT, FL, OBS, BD||1087, 1091, 1095, 1099, 1103, 1110, 1115||January - December|
|Rig Type||Typical Instruments||Rig IDs||Comment|
|Frame||ADCP, CTD, OBS, Telemetry ADCP||1057, 1065, 1069, 1072, 1076, 1080, 1084||January - December|
|SmartBuoy||CT, FL, OBS, BD||1056, 1064, 1068, 1075, 1079, 1083||January - December|
|Rig Type||Typical Instruments||Rig IDs||Comment|
|Frame||ADCP, CTD, OBS, Telemetry ADCP||1026, 1030, 1033, 1038, 1053||January - December|
|SmartBuoy||CT, FL, OBS, BD||LB2_023/1025, LB2_024/1029, LB2_025/1034, LB2_026/1037, LB2_029/1052||January - December|
|Rig Type||Typical Instruments||Rig IDs||Comment|
|Frame||ADCP, CTD, OBS, Telemetry ADCP||992, 999, 1002, 1007, 1012, 1019||January - December|
|SmartBuoy||CT, FL, OBS, BD||991, LB2_016/998, LB2_017/1003, LB2_018/1006, LB2_019/1011, LB2_020/1015, LB2_021/1018, LB2_022/1022||January - December|
|Rig Type||Typical Instruments||Rig IDs||Comment|
|Frame||ADCP, CTD, OBS, Telemetry ADCP||952, 960, 964, 968, 972, 976, 980, 984, 988||January - December|
|SmartBuoy||CT, FL, OBS, BD||LB2_006, LB2_007, LB2_008, LB2_009, LB2_010, LB2_011, LB2_012, LB2_013/983, LB2_014/987||January - December|
|Rig Type||Typical Instruments||Rig IDs||Comment|
|Frame||ADCP, CTD, OBS||923, 927, 931, 936, 940, 943, 947, 950||January - December|
|SmartBuoy||CT, FL, OBS, WMS||LB2_001/926, LB2_002/930, LB2_003/935, LB2_004/939, LB2_005/946||May - December|
|Marker buoy||CT||922||April - May|
CTD Sampling History
|Year||Number of Cruises||Total Casts per year|
The CTD instrument package for these cruises was a Sea-Bird 911plus, with beam transmissometer, fluorometer, LICOR PAR sensor, LISST-25, and oxygen sensor.
ADCP = Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
BD = Bacterial degradation experiment
CT = Conductivity and temperature logger
CTD = Conductivity, temperature, depth sensor
FL = Fluorometer
OBS = Optical Backscatter Turbidity meter
Telemetry ADCP = ADCP sending data back to shore in real-time
WMS = Automatic water sampler
Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - PD01/08 (11) PD02/07 (3) PD02/09B (11) PD02/10 (1) PD04/06 (3) PD04/07 (4) PD06/07 (8) PD07/08 (7) PD09/07 (8) PD09/08 (10) PD11/05 (2) PD11/11 (1) PD12/06 (3) PD12/09 (5) PD13/07 (10) PD14/08 (9) PD16/06 (3) PD16/07 (9) PD17/10 (1) PD18/05 (3) PD18/09 (5) PD19/08 (2) PD20/06 (3) PD20/07 (7) PD21/05 (3) PD21/10 (1) PD22/06 (3) PD23/07 (9) PD23/08 (7) PD24/09 (3) PD25/05 (3) PD25/06 (3) PD27/07 (9) PD29/06 (3) PD29/08 (8) PD29/10 (1) PD30/05 (6) PD33/08 (1) PD33/09 (6) PD34/05 (1) PD35/06 (6) PD36/10 (1) PD37/06 (6) PD37/08 (10) PD38/09 (3) PD41/05 (5) PD43/11 (1) PD47/09 (5) PD48/05 (1)
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|