Cruise inventory

RRS James Clark Ross JR16001 (AMT26)

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR16001 (AMT26)
Cruise period2016-09-20 — 2016-11-04
StatusCompleted
Port of departureImmingham, United Kingdom
Port of returnStanley, Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesThe overall aim of the Atlantic Meridional Transect programme is: to quantify key biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and their inherent variability over extended time and spatial scales in the Atlantic Ocean. This is achieved by executing an annually repeated meridional transect through contrasting oceanic provinces, ranging from oligotrophic deserts, to highly productive shelf seas.

The specific objectives of AMT are:
- To quantify the nature and causes of ecological and biogeochemical variability in planktonic ecosystems;
- To quantify the effects of this variability on nutrient cycling, on biogenic export and on air-sea exchange of climate active gases;
- To construct multi-decadal, multidisciplinary ocean time-series which are integrated within a wider "Pole-to-pole" observatory concept;
- To provide essential sea-truth validation for current and next generation satellite missions;
- To provide essential data for global ecosystem model development and validation;
- To provide a valuable, highly sought after and unique training arena for the next generation of UK and International oceanographers.
Chief scientistAndrew Rees (Plymouth Marine Laboratory)
ProjectAtlantic Meridional Transect (AMT)
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralNorth Atlantic Ocean
South Atlantic Ocean
SpecificAtlantic Ocean from 54 North to 54 South.
Track chartsRRS James Clark Ross JR16001 (AMT26) cruise track — jr16001trk.pdf (00 MB) 
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: number of measurements = 143
Description: Bucket measurements for SST approximately every 6 hours
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 43
Description: Continuous underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, total backscattering, acidified backscattering, acid-labile backscattering, temperature, salinity, absorbtion and attenuation from the ship’s non-toxic seawater supply
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway SST skin measurements from ISAR (Infrared SST Autonomous Radiometer).
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Magnetic Hull SST sensor ~ every 20 seconds.
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 73
Description: CTD profiles (salinity, temperature, oxygen concentration, fluorescence, transmittance, down-welling PAR, backscatter).
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: number of profiles = 67
Description: Optical measurements from the CTD profiles (backscattering coefficient)
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Optical measurements of the ship’s seawater supply (beam attenuation, backscattering and absorption coefficients). 1-minute samples.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: activity duration in days = 43
Description: Continuous underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, total backscattering, acidified backscattering, acid-labile backscattering, temperature, salinity, absorbtion and attenuation from the ship’s non-toxic seawater supply
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: number of profiles = 37
Description: Optical measurements from the Optics Rig for particulate beam attenuation and absorption coefficients.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous measurements of above-water radiometery using a hyperspectral radiometer (Satlantic HyperSAS) from dawn to dusk. Including downwelling irradiance, sky radiance and water-leaving radiance
Instrumented wave measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Underway (approx. every 20 mins) Wave radar (Cband) measurements and camera footage with 40-80 images every 20 minutes.
Other physical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of profiles = 30
Description: Depth resolved samples (3 descrete depths) using Stand Alone Pumping Systems (SAPS). Samples for microplastic and POC analysis.
Other physical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of profiles = 33
Description: Discrete samples were taken from the underway and surface from the midday CTD for Particle Absorption (PAB’s) to coincide with the ESA satellite overpass
Other physical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of samples = 38
Description: Discrete samples were taken from the underway and surface from the midday CTD for Particle Absorption (PAB’s) to coincide with the ESA satellite overpass.
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of profiles = 64
Description: Discrete oxygen samples collected from each CTD cast for calibration of the CTD oxygen optode (> 6 samples per cast). Supervisor is Vas Katidis.
Carbon dioxideQuantity: number of profiles = 30
Description: Depth resolved samples (3 descrete depths) using Stand Alone Pumping Systems (SAPS). Samples for microplastic and POC analysis.
Carbon dioxideQuantity: activity duration in days = 38
Description: Cavity Ring Down Spectoscopy coupled to seawater equilibration unit for underway analysis of N2O, CH4 and CO2 in atmosphere and surface seawater from ships continual supply
Other dissolved gasesQuantity: activity duration in days = 38
Description: Cavity Ring Down Spectoscopy coupled to seawater equilibration unit for underway analysis of N2O, CH4 and CO2 in atmosphere and surface seawater from ships continual supply
PhosphateQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Discrete samples for macronutrients collected from each CTD cast (all fired bottles)
NitrateQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Discrete samples for macronutrients collected from each CTD cast (all fired bottles)
NitriteQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Discrete samples for macronutrients collected from each CTD cast (all fired bottles)
SilicateQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Discrete samples for macronutrients collected from each CTD cast (all fired bottles)
AlkalinityQuantity: number of samples = 136
Description: 2/3 DIC samples taken including surface and Deep Clorophyll Maximum for analysis at PML. Fixed with Mercuric Chloride.
pHQuantity: number of profiles = 63
Description: Twelve – fifteen samples collected per CTD cast analysed using spectrophotometer with in situ measurements.
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 41
Description: Continuous underway CO2, Oxygen, temperature and gas pressure measurements using sensors
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of samples = 136
Description: 2/3 DIC samples taken including surface and Deep Clorophyll Maximum for analysis at PML. Fixed with Mercuric Chloride.
Contamination 
Contaminants in organismsQuantity: number of hauls = 34
Description: Double bongo (1 x 200 µm, 1 x 63 µm) at surface for water borne microplastic concentrations and zooplankton ingestion.
Contaminants in organismsQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Triple bongo (2 x 200 µm, 1 x 63 µm), 200 m vertical haul for water borne microplastic concentrations and zooplankton ingestion.
Contaminants in organismsQuantity: number of samples = 35
Description: Filtering through 300 µm, 65 µm and fine opportunistically for water borne microplastic concentrations.
Other contaminant measurementsQuantity: number of samples = 35
Description: Filtering through 300 µm, 65 µm and fine opportunistically for water borne microplastic concentrations.
Other contaminant measurementsQuantity: number of hauls = 34
Description: Double bongo (1 x 200 µm, 1 x 63 µm) at surface for water borne microplastic concentrations and zooplankton ingestion.
Other contaminant measurementsQuantity: number of profiles = 30
Description: Depth resolved samples (3 descrete depths) using Stand Alone Pumping Systems (SAPS). Samples for microplastic and POC analysis.
Other contaminant measurementsQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Triple bongo (2 x 200 µm, 1 x 63 µm), 200 m vertical haul for water borne microplastic concentrations and zooplankton ingestion.
Biology and fisheries 
Primary productivityQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Primary production measurements were made from the pre-dawn CTD taken from 6 depths on three size classes of phytoplankton. (32 pre-dawn CTD’s)
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: activity duration in days = 43
Description: Continuous underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, total backscattering, acidified backscattering, acid-labile backscattering, temperature, salinity, absorbtion and attenuation from the ship’s non-toxic seawater supply
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of samples = 83
Description: This dataset refers specifically to samples collected for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) from the ships underway system by PI-D. Samples will be analysed by HPLC at Plymouth Marine Laboratory after the cruise
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of samples = 277
Description: This dataset refers specifically to samples collected for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) from the Niskin bottles attached to the CTD by PI-D Seawater samples were collected from the predawn and noon CTD casts. Samples will be analysed by HPLC at Plymouth Marine Laboratory after the cruise.
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Discrete chl-a samples collected from each CTD cast for calibration of the CTD fluorometer (between 7 and 10 samples per cast)
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of samples = 177
Description: Discrete chl-a samples collected from the ship’s non-toxic supply for calibration of the Surfmet fluorometer
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of samples = 110
Description: Discrete samples from the ship’s non-toxic supply for POC, PIC, coccolith enumeration, and biogenic silica
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 48
Description: 6 Discrete samples including surface and 500 m for Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON) and Particulate Organic Phosphorous (POP).
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 67
Description: Discrete samples from varying depths (always including surface and DCM) for POC, PIC, coccolith enumeration, biogenic silica, and scanning electron microscopy
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of samples = 13
Description: Opportunistically collected DOC, DOP and DON samples (filtered then frozen) collected near South Georgia and The Falklands for the LOCATE project. Additional contact is Stuart Painter (NOC).
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of samples = 22
Description: Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) samples taken at 5 depths measured using spectrophotometer filtered at 0.3 µm
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: activity duration in days = 24
Description: Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) samples using spectrophotometer filtered at 0.3 um. 2 - 4 samples per day.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Quantification of pico- and nanophytoplankton abundance from all depths between the surface and 200m from CTD casts by flow cytometry
Pelagic bacteria/micro-organismsQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Quantification of heterotrophic bacteria abundance from all depths between the surface and 200m from CTD casts by flow cytometry
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of profiles = 25
Description: Particle size distribution using Coulter Counter for afternoon CTD casts at 6 depths.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 32
Description: Total Suspended Matter (TSM) samples taken from the surface and 300 m.
Meteorology 
Upper air observationsQuantity: number of observations = 157
Description: Meteorological observations approximately every 6 hours
Incident radiationQuantity: activity duration in days = 41
Description: Continuous underway measurements of total upwelling radiance, downwelling sky radiance, and total downwelling irradiance
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Underway continuous 3-axis wind speed and direction. Humidity and temperature sensors.
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: number of deployments = 37
Description: Radiosonde deployments measuring air temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction (alternative PI cnotacts are Gavin Tilstone (PML) or Steve Cowell (BAS))
Atmospheric chemistryQuantity: activity duration in days = 38
Description: Cavity Ring Down Spectoscopy coupled to seawater equilibration unit for underway analysis of N2O, CH4 and CO2 in atmosphere and surface seawater from ships continual supply
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements18° 29' 55" S  25° 0' 28" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed October 2015) on 16 October 2016
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements18° 32' 40" S  25° 7' 42" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring deployed on 16 October 2016.
Current meters18° 32' 40" S  25° 7' 42" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring deployed on 16 October 2016.
Current meters18° 29' 55" S  25° 0' 28" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed October 2015) on 16 October 2016
Surface drifters/drifting buoys47° 26' 52" S  32° 29' 8" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7585
Surface drifters/drifting buoys21° 20' 22" S  25° 0' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #
Surface drifters/drifting buoys44° 54' 42" S  31° 4' 50" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7584
Surface drifters/drifting buoys50° 15' 50" S  34° 4' 5" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7586
Surface drifters/drifting buoys36° 32' 7" S  28° 8' 18" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7583
Surface drifters/drifting buoys20° 40' 32" S  24° 59' 43" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO099
Surface drifters/drifting buoys34° 25' 29" S  27° 11' 28" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO106
Surface drifters/drifting buoys15° 22' 46" S  25° 4' 33" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7587
Other physical oceanographic measurements34° 25' 29" S  27° 11' 28" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO106
Other physical oceanographic measurements36° 32' 7" S  28° 8' 18" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7583
Other physical oceanographic measurements44° 54' 42" S  31° 4' 50" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7584
Other physical oceanographic measurements47° 26' 52" S  32° 29' 8" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7585
Other physical oceanographic measurements50° 15' 50" S  34° 4' 5" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7586
Other physical oceanographic measurements21° 20' 22" S  25° 0' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #
Other physical oceanographic measurements15° 22' 46" S  25° 4' 33" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7587
Other physical oceanographic measurements20° 40' 32" S  24° 59' 43" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO099
Chemical oceanography 
Oxygen20° 40' 32" S  24° 59' 43" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO099
Oxygen34° 25' 29" S  27° 11' 28" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO106
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)20° 40' 32" S  24° 59' 43" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO099
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)34° 25' 29" S  27° 11' 28" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO106
Sediment traps18° 29' 55" S  25° 0' 28" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed October 2015) on 16 October 2016
Sediment traps18° 32' 40" S  25° 7' 42" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring deployed on 16 October 2016.
Other biological/fisheries measurement34° 25' 29" S  27° 11' 28" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO106
Other biological/fisheries measurement20° 40' 32" S  24° 59' 43" W — Bio Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll with depth. Performing vertical profile every day. UK Met Office. #LOVBIO099