Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) Project Integration

Dry/wet deposition

Dry and wet deposition of aerosol particles to the ocean surface is a major transport pathway of trace nutrients such as iron, nitrogen and phosphorous into the oceans. Currently, no satisfactory technique exists for direct estimation of dry deposition fluxes. At present, the best approach for estimating dry deposition of particles uses the model-based parameterisation developed by Slinn and Slinn (1980) or some more recent modification of it.

Wet deposition is easier to measure (i.e. precipitation rate and chemical composition), but sampling tends to be opportunistic on research cruises. Reliable multi-year studies do exist, but at relatively few marine locations (e.g. Moody et al., 1991; Galloway et al., 1993).

  1. Galloway, J.N. et al. (1993) The temporal and spatial variability of scavenging ratios for nss sulfate, nitrate, methanesulfonate and sodium in the atmosphere over the North Atlantic Ocean. Atm Env 27: 235-250.
  2. Moody, J.L. et al. (1991) Precipitation composition and its variability in the southern Indian Ocean – Amsterdam Island, 1980-1987. JGR 96: 20769-20786.
  3. Slinn, S.A. and Slinn, W.G.N. (1980) Predictions for particle deposition on natural waters. Atm Env 14(9): 1013-1016.

Implementation Group 2, Physical processes controlling air-sea exchange, also examines transfer velocity (k).