Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1015623
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Rapid Climate Change Programme data access conditions - phase 3
The data are currently under the following restriction:
- Anyone making use of these data is required to include the PI and/or co-workers (as appropriate) as co-author/s on any resulting papers.
Prof Bill Johns at Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science(RSMAS) Meteorology and Physical Oceanography (MPO(RSMAS-MPO)
Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) Data Policy
The following data policy has been ratified by the full Steering Committee and will apply to all projects funded through RAPID:
- data should be lodged with the appropriate data centre on acquisition*, together with such metadata as are defined under the RAPID Data Management Plan.
- data would be embargoed for 1 year from acquisition, allowing the PI and co-workers to exploit it in the first instance. Metadata should not be embargoed, to allow the wider community to be aware of work being carried out under RAPID and facilitate community building.
- data should be made available to the RAPID community after 1 year, and to everyone after 2 years.
- anyone making use of RAPID data within 3 years of it being lodged at the data centre would be required to include the PI and/or co-workers (as appropriate) as co-author/s on any resulting papers.
- PIs and/or co-workers failing to comply with the RAPID data policy would be subject to appropriate sanctions.
[n.b. Data includes palaeo data, present-day observations, model output, data syntheses, data-model syntheses.]
* On acquisition: the time-scale may vary between data types (for example, real-time data could go directly to a data centre) but the overall aim is to keep the time-scale as short as possible and certainly less than 6 months. This is to ensure that data acquired during RAPID are available to the RAPID community within the lifetime of the programme.
RD Instruments 150kHz Narrow Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
|Water velocity measurements relative to the ADCP|
|Accuracy (long term)||0.5 % of measured velocity ± 0.5 cm/s|
|Statistical uncertainty for one ping (cm/s)||Depth cell length of 4, 8, 16 m = 26, 13, 6.5 respectively (for horizontal velocities using the standard transducer)|
|Ping rate (pings per second)||2 (100 pings averaged in ADCP)|
|Maximum profiling range (meters)||290|
|Minimum range to start of first depth cell (meters)||4|
|Number of depth cells||8 to 128|
|Velocity range||± 0.01 to 9.5 m/s (horizontal)|
|Velocity resolution (cm/s)||0.25 or 0.125|
|Velocity measurements relative to the bottom and measurement of bottom depth|
|Accuracy||0.5% of measured velocity ± 0.5 cm/s|
|Statistical uncertainty of one ping (percent of measured velocity)||3.5 (for horizontal velocities using the standard transducer)|
|Ping rate (pings per second)||0.9 (100 pings averaged in ADCP)|
|Depth range||290 (the maximum depth range can be up to 1.5 times greater than specified)|
|Bottom depth resolution (meters)||4|
|Velocity range||± 0.01 to 9.5 m/s (horizontal)|
|Velocity resolution (cm/s)||0.25 or 0.125|
|Measurement of echo intensity|
|Accuracy (with temperature correction)||Before calibration : ± 8 dB, After calibration: ± 3 dB|
|Statistical uncertainty for one ping||Approximately ± 5 dB|
|Ping rate (pings per second)||2 (100 pings averaged in ADCP)|
|Profiling range (meters less than for water velocity measurement)||64|
|Number of depth cells||8 to 128|
|Dynamic range||80 dB|
|Resolution||0.45 dB typical (temperature/system dependent)|
|Interface||Modified RS-232/422 serial at baud rates of 300-19,200|
|Data format||Binary (8-bit) or ASCII (76-character) lines separated by a carriage return/line feed.|
|Data storage capacity||2 MB (standard); expandable to 40 MB in 1 and/or 2 MB increments|
|ADCP electronics||Voltage range (VDC) 6-12; Standby current (amps) 0.0002; Operate current (amps) 0.24; Peak current (amps) 0.5|
|transmit and EPROM recorder||Voltage range (VDC) 20-40; Standby current (amps) 0.0001; Operate current (amps) 0.10; Peak current (amps) 2.0|
|CTD sensors||Voltage range (VDC) 12-20; Standby current (amps) 0.0001; Operate current (amps) 0.022; Peak current (amps) 0.05|
|Time constant||Approximately 2 minutes|
|Range||-5° to 45°C|
|Operating temperature||-5°C to 40°C|
|Humidity||Must be non-condensing|
|Depth capability||35 meters (transducer only)|
|Weight in air||67.6 kg|
|Weight in water||25.0|
RAPIDMOC ADCP data processing document
This document outlines the procedures undertaken to process and quality assure ADCP data collected under the RAPIDMOC project.
The raw data are downloaded from the instrument and converted to ASCII format.
Once in ASCII format the data are corrected for the following -
- Bin mapping
- Sound speed
- Magnetic variation
A 40 hour low pass filter is also applied to the data.
Calculating and applying calibrations
Manufacturers calibrations are applied.
Data were visually inspected for out-lying data and instrument electrical spikes removed.
Data are received after quality checks have been made and calibrations have been applied. The data files are submitted in ASCII format as one file per bin.
Once the submitted data files are safely archived, the data undergo reformatting and banking procedures:
The data files are concatenated and transferred into one file per instrument in a common format, a NetCDF subset.
Standard parameter codes are assigned that accurately describe the data (see Parameter mapping section below).
Unit conversions are applied, if necessary, so that units are standardised (see Parameter mapping section below).
The data are screened visually and any spikes or instrument malfunctions can be clearly labelled with quality control flags.
Comprehensive documentation is prepared describing the collection, processing and quality of each data series.
Detailed metadata and documents are loaded to the database and linked to each series so that the information is readily available to future users.
The following describes the parameters contained in the originator's files and their mapping to BODC parameter codes:
|Identifier||Unit||Definition||BODC parameter code||Units||Unit conversion||Comments|
|YY||year||Year||AADYAA01||days||-||Combined with MM and DD to form a date and transferred|
|MM||month||Month||AADYAA01||days||-||Combined with MM and DD to form a date and transferred|
|DD||day||Day||AADYAA01||days||-||Combined with MM and DD to form a date and transferred|
|Z||metres||Depth below surface||PPSAADCP||metres||-||Transferred|
Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) Programme
Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) is a £20 million, six-year (2001-2007) programme of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The programme aims to improve our ability to quantify the probability and magnitude of future rapid change in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean's Thermohaline Circulation.
- To establish a pre-operational prototype system to continuously observe the strength and structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC).
- To support long-term direct observations of water, heat, salt, and ice transports at critical locations in the northern North Atlantic, to quantify the atmospheric and other (e.g. river run-off, ice sheet discharge) forcing of these transports, and to perform process studies of ocean mixing at northern high latitudes.
- To construct well-calibrated and time-resolved palaeo data records of past climate change, including error estimates, with a particular emphasis on the quantification of the timing and magnitude of rapid change at annual to centennial time-scales.
- To develop and use high-resolution physical models to synthesise observational data.
- To apply a hierarchy of modelling approaches to understand the processes that connect changes in ocean convection and its atmospheric forcing to the large-scale transports relevant to the modulation of climate.
- To understand, using model experimentation and data (palaeo and present day), the atmosphere's response to large changes in Atlantic northward heat transport, in particular changes in storm tracks, storm frequency, storm strengths, and energy and moisture transports.
- To use both instrumental and palaeo data for the quantitative testing of models' abilities to reproduce climate variability and rapid changes on annual to centennial time-scales. To explore the extent to which these data can provide direct information about the thermohaline circulation (THC) and other possible rapid changes in the climate system and their impact.
- To quantify the probability and magnitude of potential future rapid climate change, and the uncertainties in these estimates.
Overall 38 projects have been funded by the RAPID programme. These include 4 which focus on Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), and 5 international projects jointly funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the Research Council of Norway and NERC.
The RAPID effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for collaborative projects reviewed jointly with the NERC proposals. Three projects were funded by NSF.
A proportion of RAPID funding as been made available for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) as part of NERC's Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI). The SBRI aims to stimulate innovation in the economy by encouraging more high-tech small firms to start up or to develop new research capacities. As a result 4 projects have been funded.
Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5N (RAPIDMOC)
There is a northward transport of heat throughout the Atlantic, reaching a maximum of 1.3PW (25% of the global heat flux) around 24.5°N. The heat transport is a balance of the northward flux of a warm Gulf Stream, and a southward flux of cooler thermocline and cold North Atlantic Deep Water that is known as the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). As a consequence of the MOC northwest Europe enjoys a mild climate for its latitude: however abrupt rearrangement of the Atlantic Circulation has been shown in climate models and in palaeoclimate records to be responsible for a cooling of European climate of between 5-10°C. A principal objective of the RAPID programme is the development of a pre-operational prototype system that will continuously observe the strength and structure of the MOC. An initiative has been formed to fulfill this objective and consists of three interlinked projects:
- A mooring array spanning the Atlantic at 26.5°N to measure the southward branch of the MOC (Hirschi et al., 2003 and Baehr et al., 2004).
- Additional moorings deployed in the western boundary along 26.5°N (by Prof. Bill Johns, University of Miami) to resolve transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (Bryden et al., 2005). These moorings allow surface-to-bottom density profiles along the western boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and eastern boundary to be observed. As a result, the transatlantic pressure gradient can be continuously measured.
- Monitoring of the northward branch of the MOC using submarine telephone cables in the Florida Straits (Baringer et al., 2001) led by Dr Molly Baringer (NOAA/AOML/PHOD).
The entire monitoring array system created by the three projects will be recovered and redeployed annually until 2008 under RAPID funding. From 2008 until 2014 the array will continue to be serviced annually under RAPID-WATCH funding.
The array will be focussed on three regions, the Eastern Boundary (EB), the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Western Boundary (WB). The geographical extent of these regions are as follows:
- Eastern Boundary (EB) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 23.5°N, 25.5°W and the north-west corner at 29.0°N, 12.0°W
- Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 23.0°N, 52.1°W and the north-west corner at 26.5°N, 40.0°W
- Western Boundary (WB) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 26.0°N, 77.5°W and the north-west corner at 27.5°N, 69.5°W
Baehr, J., Hirschi, J., Beismann, J.O. and Marotzke, J. (2004) Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic: A model-based array design study. Journal of Marine Research, Volume 62, No 3, pp 283-312.
Baringer, M.O'N. and Larsen, J.C. (2001) Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27N Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 28, No 16, pp3179-3182
Bryden, H.L., Johns, W.E. and Saunders, P.M. (2005) Deep Western Boundary Current East of Abaco: Mean structure and transport. Journal of Marine Research, Volume 63, No 1, pp 35-57.
Hirschi, J., Baehr, J., Marotzke J., Stark J., Cunningham S.A. and Beismann J.O. (2003) A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 30, No 7, article number 1413 (DOI 10.1029/2002GL016776)
Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array (MOCHA) Project
Users of these data are referred to the Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array (MOCHA) Project Website for more information. The following text has been taken from the website.
To set in place a system for continuous observation of the meridional heat transport in the subtropical Atlantic, with which to document its variability and its relationship to oberved climate fluctuations, and to assess climate model predictions
MOCHA is a collaborative project, partnered with the UK RAPID Program, to measure the heat and freshwater transports of the North Atlantic Ocean. These transports are called the Thermohaline or Overturning Circulation. Simply put, warm waters move poleward at the surface of the ocean, where they cool and sink, to return equatorward in the deep ocean.
RAPID- Will the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Halt? (RAPID-WATCH)
RAPID-WATCH (2007-2014) is a continuation programme of the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) programme. It aims to deliver a robust and scientifically credible assessment of the risk to the climate of UK and Europe arising from a rapid change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The programme will also assess the need for a long-term observing system that could detect major MOC changes, narrow uncertainty in projections of future change, and possibly be the start of an 'early warning' prediction system.
The effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic MOC is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for the existing collaborations started during RAPID for the observational arrays.
- To deliver a decade-long time series (2004-2014) of calibrated and quality-controlled measurements of the Atlantic MOC from the RAPID-WATCH arrays.
- To exploit the data from the RAPID-WATCH arrays and elsewhere to determine and interpret recent changes in the Atlantic MOC, assess the risk of rapid climate change, and investigate the potential for predictions of the MOC and its impacts on climate.
This work will be carried out in collaboration with the Hadley Centre in the UK and through international partnerships.
The RAPID-WATCH arrays are the existing 26°N MOC observing system array (RAPIDMOC) and the WAVE array that monitors the Deep Western Boundary Current. The data from these arrays will work towards meeting the first scientific objective.
The RAPIDMOC array consists of moorings focused in three geographical regions (sub-arrays) along 26.5° N: Eastern Boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Western Boundary. The Western Boundary sub-array has moorings managed by both the UK and US scientists. The other sub-arrays are solely led by the UK scientists. The lead PI is Dr Stuart Cunningham of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK.
The WAVE array consists of one line of moorings off Halifax, Nova Scotia. The line will be serviced in partnership with the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Halifax, Canada. The lead PI is Dr Chris Hughes of the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Liverpool, UK.
All arrays will be serviced (recovered and redeployed) either on an annual or biennial basis using Research Vessels from the UK, US and Canada.
The second scientific objective will be addressed through numerical modelling studies designed to answer four questions:
- How can we exploit data from the RAPID-WATCH arrays to obtain estimates of the MOC and related variables?
- What do the observations from the RAPID-WATCH arrays and other sources tell us about the nature and causes of recent changes in the Atlantic Ocean?
- What are the implications of RAPID-WATCH array data and other recent observations for estimates of the risk due to rapid change in the MOC?
- Could we use RAPID-WATCH and other observations to help predict future changes in the MOC and climate?
|Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||2008-04-23|
|End Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||2009-12-03|
|Organization Undertaking Activity||Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science|
|Country of Organization||United States|
|Originator's Data Activity Identifier||WB0#4|
|Platform Category||subsurface mooring|
RAPID Moored Instrument Rig WB0#4
This rig was deployed as part of the Western Boundary (WB) array of the MOCHA/RAPIDMOC project.
|Deployment cruise||RV Seward Johnson cruise SJ08-03-2|
|Recovery cruise||RRS Discovery cruise D345|
The rig was anchored to the sea bed by 2760lbs of railway wheels and was kept erect by a 45in syntactic sub-surface float supplemented by groups of smaller buoyancy attached throughout the mooring.
Instruments deployed on the rig
|320m||RD Instruments Narrowband 150 kHz ADCP (#324)|
|400m||SonTek Argonaut MD current meter (#D276)|
|597m||SonTek Argonaut MD current meter (#D305)|
|799m||SonTek Argonaut MD current meter (#D300)|
Instrument SonTek Argonaut MD current meter #D276 did not return good data and therefore no data are available.
|Cruise Name||SJ-08-03 Leg 2|
|Principal Scientist(s)||Torsten Kanzow (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)|
|Ship||RV Seward Johnson|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||Western Boundary Array|
|Latitude||26° 37.50' N|
|Longitude||73° 37.50' W|
|Water depth below MSL|
RAPIDMOC Western Boundary (WB) Array
The Western Boundary Array defines a box in which moorings were deployed at the western side of the North Atlantic as part of the RAPIDMOC project and the collaborative project Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array (MOCHA). The box region has latitudinal limits of 26° N to 27.5° N and longitudinal limits of 69.5° W to 77.5° W. Moorings have occupied this region since 2004 and are typically deployed for 6 to 18 months.
Moored data summary
|Year||Cruise ID||Number of moorings||Data types (number of instruments)|
|2004||D278||9 (6 RAPIDMOC, 3 MOCHA)||ADCP (2), BPR (8), CM (29), MCTD (52), MMP (1)|
|2005||KN182_2||11 (6 RAPIDMOC, 5 MOCHA)||ADCP (2), BPR (6), CM (27), MCTD (56)|
|2006||RB06-02, SJ14-06||11 (6 RAPIDMOC, 5 MOCHA)||ADCP (1), BPR (3), CM (22), IES (7), MCTD (60)|
|2007||RB07-01||7 (7 RAPIDMOC)||ADCP (1), BPR (4), CM (16), MCTD (47)|
|2008||SJ08-03||11 (8 RAPIDMOC, 3 MOCHA)||ADCP (2), BPR (3), CM (40), MCTD (80)|
|2009||RB0901, D344, D345||16 (11 RAPIDMOC, 5 MOCHA)||ADCP (2), BPR (5), CM (39), MCTD (91), DVS (1)|
|2010||OC459-1, RB1009||9 (8 RAPIDMOC, 1 MOCHA)||ADCP (1), BPR (7), CM (23), MCTD (54)|
|2011||KN200-4||7 (7 RAPIDMOC, 6 MOCHA)||ADCP (2), BPR (7), CM (43), MCTD (86), DVS (1), IES (1)|
Cruise data summary
During the cruises to service the moored array, a variety of data types are collected. The table below is a summary of these data. The number of CTD profiles performed on these cruises within the box region defined above is also included. Trans-Atlantic hydrographic CTD sections have also been performed since 2004 and are included in the table.
|Cruise ID||Cruise description||Data types||Number of CTD profiles performed within the box region|
|D277||Initial array deployment||DIS, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||1|
|D278||Initial array deployment||DIS, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||16|
|D279||Hydrographic section||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||31|
|KN182_2||Array service||CTD, DIS, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||64|
|RB0601||Array service||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||39|
|SJ14-06||Array service||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||33|
|RB07-01||Array service||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||36|
|SJ08-03||Array service||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||33|
|RB0901||Array service||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||35|
|D344||Array service||CTD, DIS, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||3|
|D345||Array service||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||24|
|OC459-1||Array service||CTD, DIS, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||9|
|OC459-2||Western Boundary Hydrographic section||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||27|
|D346||Hydrographic section||CTD, DIS, LADCP, MET, NAV, SADCP, SURF||31|
|RB1009||WB4 service||CTD, MET, SURF, NAV||2|
|KN200-4||Array service||CTD, DIS, MET, NAV, SURF||34|
Data type ID and description
|Data type ID||Description|
|ADCP||Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler|
|BPR||Bottom Pressure Recorder|
|DIS||Discrete water bottle samples|
|DVS||Doppler Volume sampler|
|IES||Inverted Echo Sounder|
|LADCP||Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler|
|MCTD||Moored Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensor|
|MMP||McLane Moored Profiler - profiling CTD and current meter|
|SADCP||Shipborne Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler|
|SURF||Sea surface data|
Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 973306 973318 973331 973343 973355 973367 973379 973380 973392 973411 973423 973435 973447 973459 973460 973472 973484 973496 973503 973515 973527 973539 973540 973552 973564 973576 973588 973607 973619 973620 973632 973644 973656 973668 973681 973693 973700 973712 973724 973736 973748 973761 973773 973785 973797 973877 973889 973890 1015635 1015659 1015660 1015672 1015684 1015696 1015703 1015715 1015727 1015739 1015740 1015752 1015788 1015807 1015819 1015820 1015832 1015844 1015856 1015948 1015961 1015973 1015985 1015997 1016048 1016061
Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - D278 (90) D344 (8) D345 (41) D346 (31) KN182_2 (85) KN200-4 (86) OC459-1 (56) RB0602 (42) RB0701 (58) RB0901 (75) RB1009 (24) RB1201 (55) SJ-08-03 Leg 1 (37) SJ-08-03 Leg 2 (74) SJ-14-06 (62)
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|