Kwajalein (Marshall Island) Site History

History Summary

Station Kwajalein
Country Republic of Marshall Is.
Latitude 08° 44.0' N
Longitude 167° 44.0' E
GLOSS No 111
Time Reference GMT (hours 00-23)
Contributor National Ocean Service (NOS) National Ocean. and Atmos. Administration (NOAA)
Instrument Type Standard mechanical (1946-1974)
Analog-to-digital (ADR) recorder (1975-1991)
Aquatrak acoustic gauge, NOAA Next Generation Water Level Measuring System (NGWLMS) (1992-2000)
Site of Gauge The gauge is situated approximately east of the signal tower towards the end of the pier.
Observational Periods 1946 - 2000

Reference Level

All heights have been referred to the station tide staff zero which is linked to fixed benchmarks. Based on residuals, a level shift was adjusted by adding -60 mm to 18Z 29 December 1950 to 12Z 31 December 1951. Differences with the PSMSL holdings suggest 1957 data high by 2 cm.

Tide Gauge Benchmark (TGBM) Description

Benchmark 8(1957) is the primary benchmark (PBM), and set in the north side of the former sea wall of Echo Pier.

Benchmark relationships

TGBM is 9.36ft above Tide Gauge Zero (Station Datum).

NOAA Chart Datum (MLLW) is 2.83ft above Station Datum.

Mean Sea Level (1960-1978) is 4.73ft above Station Datum.

Quality Assessment

Comments

The daily and monthly means reveal no apparent reference level changes or trends and agree with the nearest station, Majuro. The timing is no better than about ±5 minutes prior to 1976.

The data for 1996-2000 were supplied with heights relative to MLLW. Consequently 863mm was added to refer the data to tide gauge zero.

The data for 1998-2000 were supplied in non-GMT format and had to be shifted into GMT.

Notable episodic events:

Year CI (%) Missing Data Replaced Gaps or Bad Data Questionable Fluctuations
1947 92 120-151 (13)037-(12)038 254-255,262-263,291
1948 73 15-31,61-91,121-152,307-309,314-317,328-343,359-363 (08)010-(19)010,(12)304-(11)305,(09)320-(18)320,(10)323-(22)323,(12)326-(21)326,(05)348-(21)348 353
1949 93 127-129,134-136,138-154,163-168,169-171 (07)123-(22)123,(11)124-(21)124,(11)125-(23)125,(12)126-(22)126,(10)132-(23)132,(06)133-(03)134,(11)137-(23)137, 17-18,72,178
1950 90 273-310 None 35,65-66,122-124,168-170,249-253,266
1951 100 None (12)258-(11)259 None
1952 92 91-121 None None
1953 85 304-329 (07)121-(15)121 None
1954 100 None None None
1955 100 None (16)215-(11)216,(23)297-(11)298 None
1956 97 305-311,318-321,329-334 None 268-269
1957 100 None (21)067-(05)068 42-43
1958 100 None (16)174-(09)175 92-94,102-103
1959 100 None None 163-164
1960 99 359-361 None None
1961 98 296-302 (15)223-(11)224,(12)281-(03)282,(17)282-(02)283,(05)288-(03)289,(08)290-(04)291 None
1962 98 334-342 (16)172-(23)172 None
1963 100 None None 135
1964 100 None (20)222-(06)223 294-297
1965 100 None (10)072-(18)072,(12)073-(19)073,(15)362-(00)363 None
1966 100 None None None
1967 100 None None None
1968 89 31-61,73-83 None 97,327-328
1969 99 365 (13)005-(04)006 None
1970 99 1-6 None 249-250
1971 100 None (17)001-(02)002,(14)026-(00)027,(17)184-(00)185,(13)273-(22)273,(05)322-(21)322 None
1972 100 None None None
1973 100 None (07)241-(17)241 None
1974 100 None (03)079-(10)079,(02)107-(12)107,(00)263-(07)263 None
1975 100 None (21)303-(05)304,(19)304-(23)304 178,276,297-299
1976 81 41-44,60-91,173-182 None 25-32
1977 99 219-222 None None
1978 99 224-227 (14)011-(22)011,(12)022-(21)022 123
1979 97 1-4,12-16,31-34,365 None None
1980 98 304-310 None 46,246-247
1981 100 None None None
1982 100 None None None
1983 100 None None None
1984 100 None None None
1985 100 None None 82
1986 100 None None None
1987 100 None None None
1988 100 None None None
1989 100 None None None
1990 100 None None None
1991 100 None None None
1992 100 None None None
1993 100 None None None
1994 100 None None None
1995 100 None None None
1996 100 None None None
1997 100 None None None
1998 100 None None 93-101,288-297
1999 100 None None 11,41,70,232,261-262,305,336
2000 100 None None 10-13,21-27,48-61,80-84,114-118,125