Caldera (Chile) Site History

History Summary

Station Caldera
Country Chile
Latitude 27° 04.0' S
Longitude 070° 50.0' W
WOCE No 9002
Time Reference GMT (hours 00-23)
Contributor Servicio Hidrografico y Oceanografico de la Armada (SHOA)
Instrument Type Standard mechanical (01/1980 - 12/1985)
Metercraft bubbler (12/1985 - present) (primary)
Handar Encoder model 436A (11/1986-present)(back-up)
Site of Gauge  
Observational periods 1980 - present

Reference Level

The originators have related the data to tide staff zero which is linked to a fixed set of benchmarks. Specifically, BM #1 (established 1950) is used as a historical datum. However, original data as received from SHOA were adjusted with the SHOA station leveling data as follows.

period( day/month/year ) value added to original(mm)
01/01/1980 - 30/09/1981 -366
*03/04/1982 - 07/04/1982 50
*08/04/1982 - 12/04/1982 -150
*16/10/1982 - 19/10/1982 130
19/11/1986 - 22/09/1987 -778
*22/09/1987 - 10/10/1987 -1138
10/10/1987 - 31/12/1987 -778

*Adjustment of shift in reference level deduced from the plot of hourly residuals and from comparison of daily values with Arica and Antofagasta. These adjustments contain uncertainty of a few centimeters.

Data from 1988-1989 were received with the reference level tied to the BM #1(1950) while data for other time periods were received without linking the data to BM #1. Thus, the following level adjustments have been applied to the original data based on SHOA geodetic level records.

Period (day/month/year) Value Added to Original(mm)
01/01/1980 - 31/12/1987 -386
01/01/1990 - 31/12/1992 -1896

The best available channel for the 1993-96 data is from the Bubbler (BUB) as received via satellite at the University of Hawaii. Based on a 3 month (Jan-Mar 1993) overlap with the originators series, (-1949 mm) was added to BUB series to link it to the historical series (BM #1).

Quality Assessment by the UH Sea Level Centre

Comment

The daily and monthly values agree well with the nearest stations, Antofagasta and Arica; however, comparison with redundant sensors that transmit data via satellite shows a level shift of about -5 cm on 16 Jan 1989. The original rolls show a tear in the paper which may have caused the problem. However, the originators accept the data as is and thus no corrections have been applied.

'@' below indicates gaps filled with Encoder data and '#' below is same for Bubbler data received at the TOGA sea level center via satellite. '&' below notes gaps filled with the originator's series.

Year CI(%) Missing Data Replaced Gaps or Bad Data Questionable Fluctuations
1980 98 1,176-182 (23)183-(09)184 22-24,104-105
1981 75 275-365 (00)105-(14)105 (15)191-(11)192 (14)210-(03)211 none
1982 80 1-72 (15)152-(11)153 67,71
1983 99 46-49,58-60 (04)101-(23)101 (00)245-(08)245 none
1984 100 none (18)023-(11)024 (18)144-(13)145 (18)169-(13)170 none
1985 97 1-3,5-7,117-119,145-146 (01)001-(13)001 (02)150-(15)150 (19)151-(18)152 (17)175-(13)176 (14)244-(01)245 (06)262-(17)262 (14)274-(01)275 (18)343-(13)344 (16)350-(10)351 (15)361-(13)362 none
1986 98 301-302,286-292 (01)001-(13)001 (16)043-(14)044 (05)113-(13)113 333-338
1987 100 none (07)058-(14)058 (05)122-(14)122 (16)159-(15)160 (03)287-(09)288 (06)292-(13)292 (13)297-(22)297 (01)303-(09)303 (19)304-(13)305 @(00)010-(23)015 #(00)068-(14)086 #(16)282-(20)285 #(20)293-(02)295 #(14)319-(15)320 2-3,30-32,222-224,250-252,277,285-286,296-300
1988 100 none (22)008-(18)009 (01)068-(13)068 (14)075-(13)076 (05)087-(13)087 (18)110-(16)111 #(18)214-(18)220 none
1989 100 none (20)029-(13)030 (11)188-(22)188 (14)212-(12)213 (20)306-(13)307 (04)344-(22)344 #(16)061-(16)063 #(23)068-(13)070 #(17)273-(12)275 #(05)335-(11)336 #(14)341-(16)342 @(01)363-(23)365 260-261
1990 100 none @(00)001-(15)001 (03)002-(11)002 (19)018-(10)019 @(16)031-(22)046 @(12)053-(11)056 (05)071-(14)071 @(02(072-(13)073 (06)074-(14)074 (21)090-(23)090 (21)105-(13)106 (20)106-(13)107 (08)230-(16)230 (17)365-(23)365 none
1991 100 none @(16)095-(00)118 @(04)151-(15)152 @(20)177-(21)182 @(04)194-(13)196 137-140,251-255
1992 100 none @(14)111-(17)124 (18)184-(14)185 (16)205-(13)206 @(20)213-(13)216 (03)238-(13)238 @(21)301-(12)306 (09)336-(16)336 (22)351-(13)352 (04)362-(14)362 181-182
1993 100 none @(16)044-(15)047 @(18)184-(14)187 &(00)247-(23)253 none
1994 99 67-71 (22)072-(13)073 (01)082-(13)082 (00)084-(12)084 (22)085-(14)086 (00)087-(14)087 (00)088-(12)088 (21)103-(15)104 (22)104-(14)105 (23)105-(13)106 (23)107-(14)108 (22)108-(15)109 (22)109-(13)110 (03)111-(15)111 (02)112-(16)112 (03)113-(14)113 (03)114-(15)114 (01)115-(15)115 (01)116-(13)116 (00)119-(14)119 (03)120-(14)120 (04)121-(16)121 (22)130-(11)131 (19)316-(11)317 (01)335-(12)335 none
1995 99 172-173 (02)106-(14)106 (01)108-(12)108 (23)108-(11)109 (23)114-(14)115 (22)117-(13)118 (23)122-(12)123 211
1996 99 156-159 none none
1997 100 none (22)023-(14)025 (00)042-(13)042 (18)065-(13)066 (23)258-(13)260 none
1998 100 none (07)300-(13)300 (08)358-(15)358 none