Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1028885

Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Atmospheric composition
Instrument Type
Grimm 5.403 Condensation Particle Counter  Aerosol physical characterisers
Instrument Mounting research vessel
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Barbara Brooks
Originating Organization University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment
Processing Status QC in progress
Online delivery of data Download not available
Project(s) UKSOLAS

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier UOL_CPC_D313
BODC Series Reference 1028885

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2006-11-16 11:04
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2006-12-02 01:25
Nominal Cycle Interval 1.0 seconds

Spatial Co-ordinates

Southernmost Latitude 55.24334 N ( 55° 14.6' N )
Northernmost Latitude 58.60345 N ( 58° 36.2' N )
Westernmost Longitude 12.03627 W ( 12° 2.2' W )
Easternmost Longitude 5.07819 W ( 5° 4.7' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.0 to 0.01 n.miles
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth -20.0 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth -20.0 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height -
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height -
Sea Floor Depth -
Sea Floor Depth Source -
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Fixed common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth which is effectively fixed for the duration of the series
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
Sea Floor Depth Datum -


No Parameters for BODC Reference Number = 1028885

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database

Data Quality Report

No problems were reported by the data originator, or identified by BODC. Data were visually screened by BODC, and a few spikes well outside, and lower than, the background variability have been flagged as suspect. The signal is likely to have been affected by stack contamination at times.

Data Access Policy

Public domain data

These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.

The recommended acknowledgment is

"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."

Narrative Documents

GRIMM Condensation Particle Counter 5.403

The GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH & Co. Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) Model 5.403 is a portable nano particle counter. The GRIMM CPC detects particles in the size range 4.5 nm to >3 µm, at concentrations between 1 cm-1 and 107 cm-1. Sampling and analysis are automated, and counts returned at 1 Hz resolution. Accompanying GRIMM software allows real time logging and calibration of data.

Sample air is drawn into a saturator chamber, where it is saturated with butanol vapour, and heated to a homogeneous 35 °C. The sample then passes into the condensor unit, and is cooled to 10 °C. The butanol vapour condenses onto aerosol particles, which act as condensation nuclei. The butanol droplets, at around 10 µm, are counted by an optical particle counter, using a laser source and 90° photodiode collection. The opticle particle counter operates in either of two modes. For standard environmental concentrations, below 20,000 cm-1, each particle is counted individually. At concentrations above 20,000 cm-1, concentrations are derived, using calibration curves, from total light scattering from all particles in the detection zone.

Grimm Mobile Condensation Particle Counter 5.403

The Grimm Mobile Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is designed to measure aerosol nanoparticles as small as 4.5 nm at concentrations of up to 107 particles cm-3. Both models include a condensate removal and anti-spill design for the modern thermal diffusion-laminar flow CPC.

The instrument has a built-in control unit for Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements and a pump for the sheath air of a Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA).


Particle size range 4.5 nm to >3 µm
Particle concentration range

0 to 20000 particles cm-3 (with coincidence correction)

0 to 107 particles cm-3 (with photometric mode)

Particle concentration accuracy

5 % (single particle counting)

10 % (photometric mode)

Response time T90 = 3.9 s (low flow mode)
Flow rates of sample air

0.3 L min-1 (Standard flow)

1.5 L min-1 (High flow)

Working fluid 1-Butanol
Flow rate of sheath air 3 L min-1
Operating temperature 10 to 35°C
Ambient humidity 0 to 95 % (noncondensing)
Pressure ± 50 mbar to ambient pressure
Sampling 1 Hz

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

BODC Processing

Data were received in NetCDF, with one file for each day of operation (eg: Each file included serial date and time, and particle concentration. No position data were supplied with the CPC data. Latitude and longitude were merged into the data files, by BODC, from the screened and processed cruise navigation file, matching on time.

Parameter codes defined in the BODC parameter dictionary were mapped to the variables as follows:

Originator's Parameter Unit Description BODC Parameter Code Unit Comments
Concentration ml-1 Abundance of particles per unit volume of the atmosphere [aerosol phase] by in-situ particle counter OPCBAER1 ml-1 none
Latitude Degrees Latitude north (WGS84) by unspecified GPS system ALATGP01 Degrees Merged from navigation file by BODC
Longitude Degrees Longitude east (WGS84) by unspecified GPS system ALONGP01 Degrees Merged from navigation file by BODC

The data were banked according to BODC standard procedures for series data. Once tagged with the appropriate parameter code, the data were loaded into BODC Series Database.

Originator's Data Processing

Sampling Strategy

Aerosol particle counts were recorded at 10 second intervals, during D313, by the Grimm Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The instrument was operational for 10 hours on 16/11/2007 and, after a break for essential repairs to the ship, for 13 days from 19/11/2007 to 02/12/2007. The CPC was supplied by a 2 inch sample line with intake mounted on the mast above the monkey island. The sample line also supplied, via isokinetic sampling ports, the aethalometer, the Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP), the GRIMM Aerosol Spectrometer (dust monitor), the Volatile Aerosol Concentrationand Composition instrument (VACC), and the Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS).

Project Information

UK Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study

The UK Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study (UK SOLAS) is the UK's contribution to the international SOLAS programme.

UK SOLAS formed interdisciplinary teams to address three primary aims

UK SOLAS started in 2003, to run for seven years. The programme was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

Funded projects

In total, 19 projects have been funded by UK SOLAS, over four funding rounds.

Project Title Short Title Principal Investigator
Impact of atmospheric dust derived material and nutrient inputs on near-surface plankton microbiota in the tropical North Atlantic Dust Eric Achterberg
The role and effects of photoprotective compounds in marine plankton - Steve Archer
Field observations of sea spray, gas fluxes and whitecaps SEASAW Ian Brooks
Factors influencing the biogeochemistry of iodine in the marine environment - Lucy Carpenter
Global model of aerosol processes - effects of aerosol in the marine atmospheric boundary layer GLOMAP Ken Carslaw
Ecological controls on fluxes of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) to the atmosphere - David Green
Dust outflow and deposition to the ocean DODO Ellie Highwood
Investigation of near surface production of iodocarbons - rates and exchanges INSPIRE Gill Malin
Reactive halogens in the marine boundary layer RHaMBLe Gordon McFiggans
The role of bacterioneuston in determining trace gas exchange rates - Colin Murrell
Measuring methanol in sea water and investigating its sources and sinks in the marine environment - Phil Nightingale
The impact of coastal upwellings on air-sea exchange of climatically important gases ICON Carol Robinson
The Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment DOGEE Rob Upstill-Goddard
High wind air-sea exchanges HiWASE Margaret Yelland
Aerosol characterisation and modelling in the marine environment ACMME James Allan
3D simulation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the north east Atlantic - Icarus Allen
Processes affecting the chemistry and bioavailability of dust borne iron - Michael Krom
The chemical structure of the lowermost atmosphere - Alastair Lewis
Factors influencing the oxidative chemistry of the marine boundary layer - Paul Monks

UK SOLAS has also supported ten tied studentships, and two CASE studentships.


UK SOLAS fieldwork has included eight dedicated research cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean. Continuous measurements were made aboard aboard the Norwegian weather ship, Polarfront, until her decommission in 2009. Time series have been established at the SOLAS Cape Verde Observatory, and at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory L4 station. Experiments have taken place at the Bergen mesocosm facility.

A series of collaborative aircraft campaigns have added complementary atmospheric data. These campaigns were funded by UK SOLAS, African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA-UK), Dust and Biomass Experiment (DABEX) and the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM).


Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study

The Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) is an international research initiative comprising over 1500 scientists in 23 countries. Its central goal is to understand the biogeochemical-physical interactions between the ocean and atmosphere, and how their coupling affects, and is affected by climate change.

UK SOLAS, Field Observations of Sea Spray, Gas Fluxes and Whitecaps (SEASAW)

This project was led by the University of Leeds, in association with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and the University of the Highlands and Islands. SEASAW aimed to measure gas and particle fluxes across the air-sea interface, and to determine their dependence on environmental factors.

Fieldwork comprised one dedicated open ocean research cruise: D317, and participation in another UK SOLAS cruise: D313. The observational data include:

More detailed information on this project may be found in the official cruise reports for D313 and D317.


Data Activity or Cruise Information


Cruise Name D313 (DOGEE SOLAS)
Departure Date 2006-11-07
Arrival Date 2006-12-06
Principal Scientist(s)Robert Upstill-Goddard (Newcastle University School of Marine Science and Technology)
Ship RRS Discovery

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here

Fixed Station Information

No Fixed Station Information held for the Series

BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
Q value below limit of quantification