Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1043439

Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Atmospheric composition
Instrument Type
GRIMM 1.108 aerosol spectrometer  Aerosol physical characterisers
Instrument Mounting research vessel
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Barbara Brooks
Originating Organization University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment
Processing Status QC in progress
Online delivery of data Download not available
Project(s) UKSOLAS

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier UOL_DUST_D317
BODC Series Reference 1043439

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2007-03-21 00:00
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2007-04-10 04:44
Nominal Cycle Interval 6.0 seconds

Spatial Co-ordinates

Southernmost Latitude 42.57210 N ( 42° 34.3' N )
Northernmost Latitude 60.01090 N ( 60° 0.7' N )
Westernmost Longitude 26.14770 W ( 26° 8.9' W )
Easternmost Longitude 4.39280 W ( 4° 23.6' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.0 to 0.01 n.miles
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth -20.0 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth -20.0 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height -
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height -
Sea Floor Depth -
Sea Floor Depth Source -
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Fixed common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth which is effectively fixed for the duration of the series
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
Sea Floor Depth Datum -


No Parameters for BODC Reference Number = 1043439

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database

BODC Processing

Data were received in NetCDF, with one file for each day of operation (eg: Each file included serial date and time, particle counts for the bulk aerosol sample, size-resolved particle counts in 14 size fractions, and particle size classes defined by the median equivalent spherical diameter. Size fractions were redefined by the upper bound of equivalent spherical diameter, as reported by the instrument manufacturer, to be consistent with other aerosol size spectra held at BODC. No position data were supplied with the Dust Monitor data. Latitude and longitude were merged into the data files, by BODC, from the screened and processed cruise navigation file, matching on time.

Parameter codes defined in the BODC parameter dictionary were mapped to the variables as follows:

Originator's Parameter Unit Description BODC Parameter Code Unit Comments
Particle_density ml-1 Abundance (in size class) of particles per unit volume of the atmosphere [aerosol ambient humidity phase] by particle sizer OPCAAER1 ml-1 none
Diameter µm Size class maximum size (equivalent spherical diameter) by particle sizer OPCABIN1 nm Banked data defined by upper bound of size category in common with other aerosol size spectra held by BODC. Unit conversion applied.
Concentration ml-1 Abundance of particles per unit volume of the atmosphere [aerosol phase] by in-situ particle counter OPCBAER1 ml-1 none
Latitude Degrees Latitude north (WGS84) by unspecified GPS system ALATGP01 Degrees Merged from navigation file by BODC
Longitude Degrees Longitude east (WGS84) by unspecified GPS system ALONGP01 Degrees Merged from navigation file by BODC

The data were banked according to BODC standard procedures for series data. Once tagged with the appropriate parameter code, the data were loaded into BODC Series Database.

Data Quality Report

It was noted in the cruise report that on 29/03/2007, atmospheric sampling was affected by stack contamination for most of the day, while wind was from starboard aft. During BODC screening of dust monitor data, the period 10:21-19:56 29/03/2007 was identified as particularly noisy, and associated with winds from starboard aft. The affected data have been flagged as suspect.

Data Access Policy

Public domain data

These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.

The recommended acknowledgment is

"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."

Narrative Documents

GRIMM 1.108 Aerosol Spectrometer

The GRIMM 1.108 Aerosol Spectrometer is a small, portable unit used for the continuous measurement of aerosols. Measurements are determined in either particle counts per unit volume, or mass per unit volume.

Ambient air is drawn into the instrument by a volume controlled pump, at 1.2 L min-1. Particles are size classified by a Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA), then counted by an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The DMA neutralises the electrostatic charges of incoming particles, then imparts a charge to them. In the electrical field of the classifier, the particle trajectory is determined by the charge/mass ratio. Only particles within a narrow size range have the trajectory to exit the classifier to the OPC. As sequential size classes are counted, they are deposited on a 47 mm PTFE filter. The entire sample is deposited on the filter, which may be removed for subsequent gravimetric or chemical analysis.

Instrument specifications

Particle size bounds 0.23/0.30/0.40/0.50/0.65/0.80/1.0/1.6/2.0/3.0/4.0/5.0/7.5/10/15/20 µm
Count range 1 to 2,000,000 l-1
Mass range 0.1 to 100,000 µg m-3
Size channels 16 channel sizes, mass in µg m-3, and l-1
Count range 1 to 2,000,000 counts per filter
Sample flow rate 1.2 l min-1, flow controlled
Reproducibility ± 2 %
Filter size 47 mm
Operating temperature range 4 °C to 45 °C

Physical parameters

Dimensions 24 x 12 x 6 cm
Weight 2.4 kg
Input/Output 1 x RS 232, 3 x analogue
Power Requirements Battery or 110/220 VAC with external power supply

Further details can be found on the manufacturer's website.

Originator's Data Processing

Aerosol size spectra were measured using a GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH & Co. aerosol spectrometer, Model 1.108. The GRIMM aerosol spectrometer is commonly referred to, by users, as the Dust Monitor. It was one of suite of instruments deployed by the University of Leeds to measure ambient aerosol properties. A 2 inch sample line mounted on the mast above the monkey island supplied, via isokinetic sampling ports, the Dust Monitor and the following, other instruments: a PMS Passive Cavity Spectrometer Probe (PCASP), a Magee Scientific aethalometer, a TSI Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS), and the Leeds Volatile Aerosol Concentration and Composition (VACC) instrument.

Sampling was alternated between the Dust Monitor and the VACC. The VACC was programmed to operate over a 15 minute (approx.) heating cycle. The Dust Monitor sampled for about 5 minutes of each VACC cycle. The instrument was run in its "fast-mode", returning size spectra at 6 second intervals, and in particle count mode. The spectrometer resolves 15 particle size classes, of which the smallest class (0.23-0.30 µm) was not recorded explicitly.

Further details of sampling strategy and methodology for this, and other D317 data sets, are available from the official SEASAW D317 cruise report.

Project Information

UK Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study

The UK Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study (UK SOLAS) is the UK's contribution to the international SOLAS programme.

UK SOLAS formed interdisciplinary teams to address three primary aims

UK SOLAS started in 2003, to run for seven years. The programme was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

Funded projects

In total, 19 projects have been funded by UK SOLAS, over four funding rounds.

Project Title Short Title Principal Investigator
Impact of atmospheric dust derived material and nutrient inputs on near-surface plankton microbiota in the tropical North Atlantic Dust Eric Achterberg
The role and effects of photoprotective compounds in marine plankton - Steve Archer
Field observations of sea spray, gas fluxes and whitecaps SEASAW Ian Brooks
Factors influencing the biogeochemistry of iodine in the marine environment - Lucy Carpenter
Global model of aerosol processes - effects of aerosol in the marine atmospheric boundary layer GLOMAP Ken Carslaw
Ecological controls on fluxes of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) to the atmosphere - David Green
Dust outflow and deposition to the ocean DODO Ellie Highwood
Investigation of near surface production of iodocarbons - rates and exchanges INSPIRE Gill Malin
Reactive halogens in the marine boundary layer RHaMBLe Gordon McFiggans
The role of bacterioneuston in determining trace gas exchange rates - Colin Murrell
Measuring methanol in sea water and investigating its sources and sinks in the marine environment - Phil Nightingale
The impact of coastal upwellings on air-sea exchange of climatically important gases ICON Carol Robinson
The Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment DOGEE Rob Upstill-Goddard
High wind air-sea exchanges HiWASE Margaret Yelland
Aerosol characterisation and modelling in the marine environment ACMME James Allan
3D simulation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the north east Atlantic - Icarus Allen
Processes affecting the chemistry and bioavailability of dust borne iron - Michael Krom
The chemical structure of the lowermost atmosphere - Alastair Lewis
Factors influencing the oxidative chemistry of the marine boundary layer - Paul Monks

UK SOLAS has also supported ten tied studentships, and two CASE studentships.


UK SOLAS fieldwork has included eight dedicated research cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean. Continuous measurements were made aboard aboard the Norwegian weather ship, Polarfront, until her decommission in 2009. Time series have been established at the SOLAS Cape Verde Observatory, and at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory L4 station. Experiments have taken place at the Bergen mesocosm facility.

A series of collaborative aircraft campaigns have added complementary atmospheric data. These campaigns were funded by UK SOLAS, African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA-UK), Dust and Biomass Experiment (DABEX) and the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM).


Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study

The Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) is an international research initiative comprising over 1500 scientists in 23 countries. Its central goal is to understand the biogeochemical-physical interactions between the ocean and atmosphere, and how their coupling affects, and is affected by climate change.

UK SOLAS, Field Observations of Sea Spray, Gas Fluxes and Whitecaps (SEASAW)

This project was led by the University of Leeds, in association with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and the University of the Highlands and Islands. SEASAW aimed to measure gas and particle fluxes across the air-sea interface, and to determine their dependence on environmental factors.

Fieldwork comprised one dedicated open ocean research cruise: D317, and participation in another UK SOLAS cruise: D313. The observational data include:

More detailed information on this project may be found in the official cruise reports for D313 and D317.


Data Activity or Cruise Information


Cruise Name D317
Departure Date 2007-03-21
Arrival Date 2007-04-12
Principal Scientist(s)Ian Brooks (University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment)
Ship RRS Discovery

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here

Fixed Station Information

No Fixed Station Information held for the Series

BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
Q value below limit of quantification