Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1229854
Definition of BOTTFLAG
|0||The sampling event occurred without any incident being reported to BODC.|
|1||The filter in an in-situ sampling pump physically ruptured during sample resulting in an unquantifiable loss of sampled material.|
|2||Analytical evidence (e.g. surface water salinity measured on a sample collected at depth) indicates that the water sample has been contaminated by water from depths other than the depths of sampling.|
|3||The feedback indicator on the deck unit reported that the bottle closure command had failed. General Oceanics deck units used on NERC vessels in the 80s and 90s were renowned for reporting misfires when the bottle had been closed. This flag is also suitable for when a trigger command is mistakenly sent to a bottle that has previously been fired.|
|4||During the sampling deployment the bottle was fired in an order other than incrementing rosette position. Indicative of the potential for errors in the assignment of bottle firing depth, especially with General Oceanics rosettes.|
|5||Water was reported to be escaping from the bottle as the rosette was being recovered.|
|6||The bottle seals were observed to be incorrectly seated and the bottle was only part full of water on recovery.|
|7||Either the bottle was found to contain no sample on recovery or there was no bottle fitted to the rosette position fired (but SBE35 record may exist).|
|8||There is reason to doubt the accuracy of the sampling depth associated with the sample.|
|9||The bottle air vent had not been closed prior to deployment giving rise to a risk of sample contamination through leakage.|
Definition of Rank
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."
Skalar San+ Autoanalyzer
The San+ Autoanalyzer is an Automated Wet Chemistry Analyzer (Continuous Flow Analyzer) which has been designed as a modular system to measure a variety of water chemistry characteristics, such as nutrient concentrations in seawater. Individual modules are tailored to specific needs. It uses Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA), allowing up to 16 analytical measurements to be made on a single sample simultaneously. The system comprises a sampler, chemistry section, detector and specialist software.
The San+ includes a chemistry section which has hundreds of applications. It houses up to five chemistry cartridges with built-in dosing pump and air injection systems, up to five interchangeable cartridges with build-in photometric detectors and five separate waste receptacles. The throughput of the analyser depends upon application and can vary from 25 to 120 analyses per hour. It has a double diameter pump deck for accurate dosing with 32 pump tubes, two separated pump decks for 2 x 2 channel concept, and controlled synchronised eight channel air injection with separate built-in compressor for increased flow stability and fast start-up. It has easy access to chemistry cartridges with flexible ultra low carry-over connections between dialysers, reactors, coils, flow cells and other components, leak detection, 3-cuffs long life pump tubes, and has manually operated and automatic rinsing valves for easy automatic start up and overnight operation.
The San+ range of detectors comprises dual channel colorimetric detectors, the unique matrix correction detector with automatic background correction for difficult sample matrixes, but also covers a range of detectors for I.R., U.V., fluorimetry, ISE, flame photometry, refractometers, density meters, etc.
The San+ 'Flow Access' windows software package controls the complete analyser, with auto start-up, function control, and auto-scaling, pre-and post run sample dilutions, result calculation and statistics. Up to 16 channels can be handled simultaneously, with multiple samplers, and chemistries can be grouped for analysis.
The San+ is also known as San++.
A water sampling bottle featuring close-open-close operation. The bottle opens automatically at approximately 10 metres and flushes until closed. Sampling with these bottles avoids contamination at the surface, internal spring contamination, loss of sample on deck and exchange of water from different depths.
There are several sizes available, from 1.7 to 100 litres and are made of PVC with a depth rating of up to 500 m. These bottles can be attached to a rosette or placed on a cable at selected positions.
Nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations for ACSOE cruise Discovery 234
Originator's Protocol for Data Acquisition and Analysis
Samples for inorganic nutrient analyses were drawn from Niskin bottles deployed on the CTD rosette frame, from the trace metal clean GO-FLO bottles and from the surface underway pumped water supply into 25 ml sterilin coulter counter vials. They were kept refrigerated at 4 degree C until the analysis which commenced within 24 hours (but generally less) on all but the final days of the cruise when some samples collected on the passage leg home had to be stored for up to 50h. Analysis for dissolved nitrate and nitrite (henceforth nitrate), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (henceforth phosphate) and dissolved silicon (henceforth silicate) was undertaken on a Skalar San Plus autoanalyser following methods described by Kirkwood (1994) with no prefiltration and modifications as described in WOCE A23 JR10 cruise report and in WOCE SR1 JR27 cruise report.
The analytical instrument ran satisfactorily but occasional computer faults resulted in the need to derive concentrations manually from the chart paper readout. When compared, there was a good agreement between the manual and computer generated results however manual processing had a lower detection limit than computer processing. For silicate this changed from 0.05 µmol l-1 for the computer method to 0.5 µmol l-1 for the manual method and this affected the ability to quantify the very low silicate concentrations in some of the surface waters sampled.
Analytical accuracy was tested regularly against Sagami nutrient standard certified reference material (3 times for phosphate and nitrate and 4 times for silicate). The Sagami nutrient standard has certified value of 20, 2.0 and 100 µM respectively for nitrate, phosphate and silicate. Averaged measured values in µM were: 19.4 (SD 0.1) for the nitrate line, 1.78(SD 0.07) for the phosphate line and for the silicate, following a five-fold dilution, 20.2 (SD 0.8).
Estimated precision based on duplicate and triplicate analyses was 0.1 µM for nitrate and 0.02 µM for phosphate and silicate. Further information is available in the DI234 cruise report.
Kirkwood D.S., 1994. Nutrients: Practical notes on their determination in seawater. ICES Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences report 17. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Copenhagen, 25 pp.
BODC Data Processing Procedures
Data from CTD rosette, bottle cast and underway sampling were submitted to BODC in a spreadsheet format file containing nitrate + nitrite, phosphate and silicate concentrations.
Parameter codes defined in BODC parameter dictionary were assigned to the variables as follows:
|Originator's Parameter||Units||Description||BODC Parameter Code||Units||Comments|
|Nitrate||µM||Concentration of nitrate plus nitrite per unit volume of the water body||NTRZAATX||µmol l-1||none|
|Phosphate||µM||Concentration of phosphate per unit volume of the water body||PHOSAATX||µmol l-1||none|
|Silicate||µM||Concentration of dissolved silicate per unit volume of the water body||SLCAAATX||µmol l-1||none|
The data were banked according to BODC standard procedures for samples data. The data from CTD rosette samples were merged to existing records in the BODC database by matching the originator's cast number and bottle depth with cast number and bottle depth held in BODC database. Metadata for the surface underway and bottle cast samples were checked against cruise report information and inserted new into BODC's database.
Data Quality Report
The data have been quality controlled by the originator and information related to data quality is available from the cruise report (DI234 cruise report). Values declared as below detection limit or as needing to be used with caution by the originator have been flagged appropriately by BODC.
Atmospheric Chemistry Studies in the Oceanic Environment (ACSOE)
ACSOE was a NERC Thematic Research Programme which investigated the chemistry of the lower atmosphere (0-12 km) over the oceans. The studies aimed to bring about a clearer understanding of natural processes in the remote marine atmosphere, and how these processes are affected by atmospheric pollution originating from the continents. This information is vital to help understand regional and global-scale changes in atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Aims and Objectives
The £3.9 million NERC-funded programme was instigated as a major UK contribution to this international scientific effort between 1995 and 2000. The overarching aim of ACSOE was to investigate the processes that control the production and fate of trace gases and particles (condensation nuclei and aerosols) in the atmosphere over the oceans. For convenience it was divided into three separate but linked activities:
- MAGE, Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange - to study air-sea exchange especially of atmospherically-important gases produced by marine microorganisms, such as dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
- OXICOA, Oxidising Capacity of the Ocean Atmosphere - a study of the tropospheric ozone budget and underlying chemistry
- ACE, Aerosol Characterisation Experiment - to investigate the development of aerosols and clouds in European air spreading out into the Atlantic Ocean
The project had several objectives including:
- To determine the ozone budget of the background lower atmosphere (i.e. the troposphere)
- To study the sunlight-initiated chemistry of gases and particles (aerosol) in the background atmosphere
- To determine the importance of night-time chemistry
- To seek evidence for extensive halogen atom chemistry
- To measure air-sea gas transfer rates
- To assess the role of coastal and open ocean waters as sources of reactive gases
- To observe the effects of atmospheric deposition on oceanic biogeochemistry
- To investigate how clouds are affected by the chemistry of the inflowing air
- To identify within-cloud processes affecting particle size and chemistry
The programme was led by Professor Stuart Penkett of the University of East Anglia and involved over 100 scientists from leading British and International universities and institutes. Atmospheric data are held at BADC and data collected in the marine environment for the MAGE component of the programme are held at BODC.
Fieldwork was carried out in 1996, 1997 and 1998 and involved air-, land- and sea-based measurements, coupled with modelling studies. Measurements were made at remote field sites (Mace Head, Ireland; Weybourne, Norfolk; Tenerife), from the NERC research vessels Challenger and Discovery and aboard the Meteorological Research Flight C-130 and the Cranfield Jetstream aircraft.
|Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||1998-06-23|
|End Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||Ongoing|
|Organization Undertaking Activity||University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences|
|Country of Organization||United Kingdom|
|Originator's Data Activity Identifier||DI234_BOTTLE_BOT5|
|Platform Category||lowered unmanned submersible|
BODC Sample Metadata Report for DI234_BOTTLE_BOT5
|Sample reference number||Nominal collection volume(l)||Bottle rosette position||Bottle firing sequence number||Minimum pressure sampled (dbar)||Maximum pressure sampled (dbar)||Depth of sampling point (m)||Bottle type||Sample quality flag||Bottle reference||Comments|
|103750||10.00||1.00||General Oceanics GO-FLO water sampler||No problem reported|
Please note:the supplied parameters may not have been sampled from all the bottle firings described in the table above. Cross-match the Sample Reference Number above against the SAMPRFNM value in the data file to identify the relevant metadata.
Related Data Activity activities are detailed in Appendix 1
|Principal Scientist(s)||Peter Liss (University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
No Fixed Station Information held for the Series
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|
Appendix 1: DI234_BOTTLE_BOT5
Related series for this Data Activity are presented in the table below. Further information can be found by following the appropriate links.
If you are interested in these series, please be aware we offer a multiple file download service. Should your credentials be insufficient for automatic download, the service also offers a referral to our Enquiries Officer who may be able to negotiate access.
|Series Identifier||Data Category||Start date/time||Start position||Cruise|
|1899084||Water sample data||1998-06-23 13:04:00||59.84799 N, 20.65957 W||RRS Discovery D234|
|1899256||Water sample data||1998-06-23 13:04:00||59.84799 N, 20.65957 W||RRS Discovery D234|