Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1248587
Definition of BOTTFLAG
|0||The sampling event occurred without any incident being reported to BODC.|
|1||The filter in an in-situ sampling pump physically ruptured during sample resulting in an unquantifiable loss of sampled material.|
|2||Analytical evidence (e.g. surface water salinity measured on a sample collected at depth) indicates that the water sample has been contaminated by water from depths other than the depths of sampling.|
|3||The feedback indicator on the deck unit reported that the bottle closure command had failed. General Oceanics deck units used on NERC vessels in the 80s and 90s were renowned for reporting misfires when the bottle had been closed. This flag is also suitable for when a trigger command is mistakenly sent to a bottle that has previously been fired.|
|4||During the sampling deployment the bottle was fired in an order other than incrementing rosette position. Indicative of the potential for errors in the assignment of bottle firing depth, especially with General Oceanics rosettes.|
|5||Water was reported to be escaping from the bottle as the rosette was being recovered.|
|6||The bottle seals were observed to be incorrectly seated and the bottle was only part full of water on recovery.|
|7||Either the bottle was found to contain no sample on recovery or there was no bottle fitted to the rosette position fired (but SBE35 record may exist).|
|8||There is reason to doubt the accuracy of the sampling depth associated with the sample.|
|9||The bottle air vent had not been closed prior to deployment giving rise to a risk of sample contamination through leakage.|
Definition of Rank
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."
The Niskin bottle is a device used by oceanographers to collect subsurface seawater samples. It is a plastic bottle with caps and rubber seals at each end and is deployed with the caps held open, allowing free-flushing of the bottle as it moves through the water column.
The standard version of the bottle includes a plastic-coated metal spring or elastic cord running through the interior of the bottle that joins the two caps, and the caps are held open against the spring by plastic lanyards. When the bottle reaches the desired depth the lanyards are released by a pressure-actuated switch, command signal or messenger weight and the caps are forced shut and sealed, trapping the seawater sample.
Lever Action Niskin
The Lever Action Niskin Bottle differs from the standard version, in that the caps are held open during deployment by externally mounted stainless steel springs rather than an internal spring or cord. Lever Action Niskins are recommended for applications where a completely clear sample chamber is critical or for use in deep cold water.
A modified version of the standard Niskin bottle has been developed for clean sampling. This is teflon-coated and uses a latex cord to close the caps rather than a metal spring. The clean version of the Levered Action Niskin bottle is also teflon-coated and uses epoxy covered springs in place of the stainless steel springs. These bottles are specifically designed to minimise metal contamination when sampling trace metals.
Bottles may be deployed singly clamped to a wire or in groups of up to 48 on a rosette. Standard bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 30 L, while Lever Action bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 12 L. Reversing thermometers may be attached to a spring-loaded disk that rotates through 180° on bottle closure.
Inorganic nutrients concentrations (micromolar sensitivity nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate and ammonium) for UK SOLAS cruise Discovery D338 (ICON)
Originator's Data Acquisition and Analysis
Water samples were collected from 60 of the CTD deployments. The 20-litre CTD bottles were subsampled into acid washed 60 ml HDPE (Nalgene) bottles. Surface samples were also taken from the trace metal clean fish deployed over the starboard quarter whenever a mapping exercise of an upwelling filament was carried out. Hence nutrients surface mapping was not performed throughout the duration of the cruise.
Analysis for the nutrient samples was, in most cases, complete within 3-4 hours of sampling. No samples were stored. Analysis was conducted using a Bran and Luebbe AAIII segmented flow colorimetric autoanalyser. Clean handling techniques were employed to avoid any contamination of the samples, particularly ammonium.
BODC Data Processing Procedures
Nutrients data from CTD, underway and incubation sampling were received by BODC as one accession in three separate files: CTD_nutrients_ICON_09.xls,ICON_09_All_Underway_Final.xls, and ICON_09_All_Photo_OX_Final.xls. For profile data, the samples were identified by CTD cast number and approximate bottle firing depth. For underway data sample identifiers and date and time were provided.
Parameter codes defined in the BODC parameter dictionary were mapped to the variables as follows:
|Originator's Parameter||Units||Description||BODC Parameter Code||Units||Comments|
|Nitrite||µmol 1-1||Concentration of nitrite per unit volume of seawater||NTRIAATX||µmol l-1||none|
|Nitrite+Nitrate||µmol l-1||Concentration of nitrate per unit volume of seawater||NTRZAATX||µmol l-1||none|
|Ammonium||µmol l-1||Concentration of ammonium per unit volume of seawater||AMONAATX||µmol l-1||none|
|Silicate||µmol l-1||Concentration of silicate per unit volume of seawater||SLCAAATX||µmol l-1||none|
|Phosphate||µmol l-1||Concentration of phosphate per unit volume of seawater||PHOSAATX||µmol l-1||none|
The data were banked according to BODC standard procedures for sample data. The data were banked as received, with no averaging or other modifications applied.
Data Quality Report
The quality and accuracy of the analyses of nitrate, phosphate and silicate were checked by the originator using reference materials supplied by Dr Michio Aoyama from the KANSO company in Japan. These reference materials are close to being globally certified and the exercise was part of a global initiative for a nutrient intercomparability study.
Data values which were indicated as below detection limit or suspect by the originator have been flagged using the appropriate flag in the BODC quality flag scheme.
UK Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study
The UK Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study (UK SOLAS) is the UK's contribution to the international SOLAS programme.
UK SOLAS formed interdisciplinary teams to address three primary aims
- To determine the mechanisms controlling rates of chemical transfer and improve estimates of chemical exchanges
- To evaluate the impact of these exchanges on the biogeochemistry of the surface ocean and lower atmosphere and on feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere
- To quantify the impacts of these boundary layer processes on the global climate system
UK SOLAS started in 2003, to run for seven years. The programme was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.
In total, 19 projects have been funded by UK SOLAS, over four funding rounds.
|Project Title||Short Title||Principal Investigator|
|Impact of atmospheric dust derived material and nutrient inputs on near-surface plankton microbiota in the tropical North Atlantic||Dust||Eric Achterberg|
|The role and effects of photoprotective compounds in marine plankton||-||Steve Archer|
|Field observations of sea spray, gas fluxes and whitecaps||SEASAW||Ian Brooks|
|Factors influencing the biogeochemistry of iodine in the marine environment||-||Lucy Carpenter|
|Global model of aerosol processes - effects of aerosol in the marine atmospheric boundary layer||GLOMAP||Ken Carslaw|
|Ecological controls on fluxes of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) to the atmosphere||-||David Green|
|Dust outflow and deposition to the ocean||DODO||Ellie Highwood|
|Investigation of near surface production of iodocarbons - rates and exchanges||INSPIRE||Gill Malin|
|Reactive halogens in the marine boundary layer||RHaMBLe||Gordon McFiggans|
|The role of bacterioneuston in determining trace gas exchange rates||-||Colin Murrell|
|Measuring methanol in sea water and investigating its sources and sinks in the marine environment||-||Phil Nightingale|
|The impact of coastal upwellings on air-sea exchange of climatically important gases||ICON||Carol Robinson|
|The Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment||DOGEE||Rob Upstill-Goddard|
|High wind air-sea exchanges||HiWASE||Margaret Yelland|
|Aerosol characterisation and modelling in the marine environment||ACMME||James Allan|
|3D simulation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the north east Atlantic||-||Icarus Allen|
|Processes affecting the chemistry and bioavailability of dust borne iron||-||Michael Krom|
|The chemical structure of the lowermost atmosphere||-||Alastair Lewis|
|Factors influencing the oxidative chemistry of the marine boundary layer||-||Paul Monks|
UK SOLAS has also supported ten tied studentships, and two CASE studentships.
UK SOLAS fieldwork has included eight dedicated research cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean. Continuous measurements were made aboard aboard the Norwegian weather ship, Polarfront, until her decommission in 2009. Time series have been established at the SOLAS Cape Verde Observatory, and at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory L4 station. Experiments have taken place at the Bergen mesocosm facility.
A series of collaborative aircraft campaigns have added complementary atmospheric data. These campaigns were funded by UK SOLAS, African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA-UK), Dust and Biomass Experiment (DABEX) and the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM).
|Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||2009-05-21|
|End Date (yyyy-mm-dd)||2009-05-21|
|Organization Undertaking Activity||University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences|
|Country of Organization||United Kingdom|
|Originator's Data Activity Identifier||D338_CTD_CTD_093|
|Platform Category||lowered unmanned submersible|
BODC Sample Metadata Report for D338_CTD_CTD_093
|Sample reference number||Nominal collection volume(l)||Bottle rosette position||Bottle firing sequence number||Minimum pressure sampled (dbar)||Maximum pressure sampled (dbar)||Depth of sampling point (m)||Bottle type||Sample quality flag||Bottle reference||Comments|
|207155||20.00||1||1||110.20||110.50||109.60||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207156||10.00||2||2||110.40||110.60||109.80||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207157||20.00||3||3||90.20||90.90||90.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207158||20.00||4||4||70.10||70.50||69.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207159||20.00||5||5||55.00||55.30||54.80||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207160||20.00||6||6||35.10||35.30||35.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207161||20.00||7||7||35.00||35.30||34.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207162||20.00||8||8||35.10||35.30||35.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207163||20.00||9||9||19.90||20.30||20.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207164||20.00||10||10||19.90||20.10||19.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207165||20.00||11||11||20.00||20.30||20.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207166||20.00||12||12||15.00||15.20||15.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207167||20.00||13||13||14.80||15.10||14.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207168||20.00||14||14||14.90||15.10||14.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207169||20.00||15||15||7.70||7.90||7.80||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207170||20.00||16||16||7.80||8.00||7.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207171||20.00||17||17||7.80||8.10||7.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207172||20.00||18||18||4.70||4.90||4.80||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207173||10.00||19||19||4.70||5.10||4.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207174||20.00||20||20||4.40||4.80||4.60||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207175||20.00||21||21||4.60||5.20||4.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207176||20.00||22||22||1.40||2.70||2.00||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207177||20.00||23||23||1.50||2.70||2.10||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
|207178||20.00||24||24||1.50||2.40||1.90||Niskin bottle||No problem reported|
Please note:the supplied parameters may not have been sampled from all the bottle firings described in the table above. Cross-match the Sample Reference Number above against the SAMPRFNM value in the data file to identify the relevant metadata.
Related Data Activity activities are detailed in Appendix 1
|Principal Scientist(s)||Carol Robinson (University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
No Fixed Station Information held for the Series
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|
Appendix 1: D338_CTD_CTD_093
Related series for this Data Activity are presented in the table below. Further information can be found by following the appropriate links.
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|Series Identifier||Data Category||Start date/time||Start position||Cruise|
|1988665||Water sample data||2009-05-21 05:16:00||19.63477 N, 18.90687 W||RRS Discovery D338|