Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1253227

Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Water sample data
Instrument Type
Niskin bottle  discrete water samplers
Instrument Mounting lowered unmanned submersible
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Sinhue Torres-Valdés
Originating Organization National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
Processing Status banked
Project(s) ANDREX

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier JC030_CTD_NUTS_570:CTD12
BODC Series Reference 1253227

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2009-01-05 09:42
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) -
Nominal Cycle Interval -

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 57.00088 S ( 57° 0.1' S )
Longitude 21.00595 E ( 21° 0.4' E )
Positional Uncertainty 0.05 to 0.1 n.miles
Minimum Sensor Depth 8.8 m
Maximum Sensor Depth 5003.7 m
Minimum Sensor Height -279.7 m
Maximum Sensor Height 4715.2 m
Sea Floor Depth 4724.0 m
Sensor Distribution Unspecified -
Sensor Depth Datum Unspecified -
Sea Floor Depth Datum Unspecified -


BODC CODE Rank Units Short Title Title
ADEPZZ01 1 Metres DepBelowSurf Depth below surface of the water body
BOTTFLAG 1 Dimensionless C22_flag Sampling process quality flag (BODC C22)
FIRSEQID 1 Dimensionless FireSeqNo Bottle firing sequence number
NTRZAATX 1 Micromoles per litre NO3+NO2_Unfilt_ColAA Concentration of nitrate+nitrite {NO3+NO2} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by colorimetric autoanalysis
PHOSAATX 1 Micromoles per litre PO4_Unfilt_ColAA Concentration of phosphate {PO43- CAS 14265-44-2} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by colorimetric autoanalysis
ROSPOSID 1 Dimensionless RosPos Bottle rosette position identifier
SAMPRFNM 1 Dimensionless SampRef Sample reference number
SLCAAATX 1 Micromoles per litre SiOx_Unfilt_ColAA Concentration of silicate {SiO44- CAS 17181-37-2} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by colorimetric autoanalysis

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database

Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."

Narrative Documents

Niskin Bottle

The Niskin bottle is a device used by oceanographers to collect subsurface seawater samples. It is a plastic bottle with caps and rubber seals at each end and is deployed with the caps held open, allowing free-flushing of the bottle as it moves through the water column.

Standard Niskin

The standard version of the bottle includes a plastic-coated metal spring or elastic cord running through the interior of the bottle that joins the two caps, and the caps are held open against the spring by plastic lanyards. When the bottle reaches the desired depth the lanyards are released by a pressure-actuated switch, command signal or messenger weight and the caps are forced shut and sealed, trapping the seawater sample.

Lever Action Niskin

The Lever Action Niskin Bottle differs from the standard version, in that the caps are held open during deployment by externally mounted stainless steel springs rather than an internal spring or cord. Lever Action Niskins are recommended for applications where a completely clear sample chamber is critical or for use in deep cold water.

Clean Sampling

A modified version of the standard Niskin bottle has been developed for clean sampling. This is teflon-coated and uses a latex cord to close the caps rather than a metal spring. The clean version of the Levered Action Niskin bottle is also teflon-coated and uses epoxy covered springs in place of the stainless steel springs. These bottles are specifically designed to minimise metal contamination when sampling trace metals.


Bottles may be deployed singly clamped to a wire or in groups of up to 48 on a rosette. Standard bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 30 L, while Lever Action bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 12 L. Reversing thermometers may be attached to a spring-loaded disk that rotates through 180° on bottle closure.

Inorganic nutrient measurements from CTD bottle samples collected during ANDREX cruise JC030

Originator's Protocol for Data Acquisition and Analysis

Water samples for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, phosphate and silicate were drawn from 20 litre Niskin bottles from a 24-rosette sampling system mounted on a Sea-Bird 9/11 plus CTD. The water samples were collected into 35 ml coulter counter vials and kept refrigerated at approximately 4°C until analysis, which usually commenced within 0.5 to 2.0 hours.

Concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, phosphate and silicate were determined by a Skalar SansPlus segmented autoanalyser following methods described by Kirkwood (1996), with the exception that the pump rates through the phosphate line were increased by a factor of 1.5, which improved reproducibility and peak shape. A dilution loop for the sample line of the silicate channel was also installed giving a 2.9 times dilution. This was done in anticipation of the very high silicate concentrations expected in the area to be sampled. Stations were run individually because there was a large gap ca. >8 hours between stations. Further details of the instrumentation setup can be seen in the cruise report .

An artificial seawater matrix (ASW) of 40 g l -1 sodium chloride was used as the inter-sample wash and standard matrix. The nutrient free status of this solution was checked by running Ocean Scientific International (OSI) nutrient free seawater on every run. A single set of mixed standards were made up by diluting 5 mMol solutions made from weighed dried salts in 1 l of ASW into 1 l plastic volumetric flasks. On setting up the laboratory all labware was washed with 10% HCl and rinsed with MQ water. The wash time and sample time of the autosampler were 90 seconds and the lines were washed daily with 0.5 mol l -1 sodium hydroxide and 10% Decon 90.

Data processing was undertaken using Skalar proprietary software and was done at regular intervals throughout the cruise. Time series of baseline, instrument sensitivity, calibration curve correlation coefficient, nitrate reduction efficiency and duplicate difference was compiled to check the performance of the autoanalyser over the course of the cruise.

References Cited

Kirkwood, D., 1996. Nutrients: Practical notes on their determinations in seawater. ICES Techniques in marine environmental sciences. 17, 1-25.

BODC Data Processing Procedures

All data were received in one Microsoft Excel format file. Data received were loaded into the BODC database using established BODC data banking procedures. One discrepancy was found between the data originator's metadata and the Sea-Bird .btl files and log sheets. The rosette position numbers 22 and 23 provided for CTD cast 27 were the wrong way round in comparison to the pressure values therefore these were swapped without referral with the data originator. In addition, the following changes were made; all WOCE quality control flags provided by the originator were converted into BODC standard flags, 2 (good) = no flag, 3 (questionable) = 'L', and all absent data values were removed. The data were screened in-house prior to loading. Data were then loaded without any further changes. The following table shows how the variables were mapped to appropriate BODC parameter codes:

Originator's Parameter Unit Description BODC Parameter Code BODC Unit Comments
EXPOCODE - Cruise - - -
CASTNO - CTD station number - - -
SAMPNO - Sample number - - Null values only
DATE - Year - - -
TIME - Time - - Null values only
LATITUDE - Latitude - - -
LONGITUDE - Longitude - - -
CTDPRS dbar CTD pressure - - -
CTDPRS_FLAG_W - CTD pressure flags - - Null values only
BTLNBR - Rosette position - - -
BTLNBR_FLAG_W - Bottle flags - - Null values only
Depth m Depth - - Null values only
Depth_FLAG_W - Depth flags - - Null values only
temp - CTD temperature - - -
temp_FLAG_W - CTD temperature flags - - Null values only
potemp - CTD potential temperature - - -
potemp_FLAG_W - CTD potential temperature flags - - Null values only
sal_cal - CTD salinity - - -
sal_cal_FLAG_W - CTD salinity flags - - Null values only
NO3 µmol l -1 Nitrate+nitrite NTRZAATX µmol l -1 -
NO3_FLAG_W - Nitrate+nitrite flags - - -
SiO4 µmol l -1 Silicate SLCAAATX µmol l -1 -
SiO4_FLAG_W - Silcate flags - - -
PO4 µmol l -1 Phosphate PHOSAATX µmol l -1 -
PO4_FLAG_W - Phosphate flags - - -
oxy_cal µmol l -1 CTD oxygen - - -
oxy_cal_FLAG_W - CTD oxygen flags - - -
NO3 µmol kg -1 Nitrate+nitrite - - Nitrate+nitrite in µmol l -1 units loaded
NO3_FLAG_W - Nitrate+nitrite flags - - -
SiO4 µmol kg -1 Silicate - - Silicate in µmol l -1 units loaded
SiO4_FLAG_W - Silicate flags - - -
PO4 µmol kg -1 Phosphate - - Phosphate in µmol l -1 units loaded
PO4_FLAG_W - Phosphate flags - - -

Data Quality Report

None (BODC assessment).

Problem Report

None (BODC assessment).

Project Information

Antarctic Deep Water Rates of Export (ANDREX) project document

ANDREX is a UK field programme aimed at investigating the role of the Weddell Gyre in the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) and its influence on deep ocean properties.

The MOC is a critical regulator of Earth's climate and is crucial for deep water ventilation across the globe. Surface currents transport waters towards the poles, where they become dense and sink, flowing equatorward as deep, cool currents. The MOC ensures that the deep oceans remain ventilated and conducive to life, and is also important for anthropogenic carbon sequestration. The southern closure of the MOC in the Weddell Sea is strongly influenced by the Weddell Gyre, which facilitates the exchange of waters between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the waters of the continental shelf. Cooling and sea ice formation in the Weddell Sea lead to overturning of the water column and the ventilation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which flows out of the Weddell Sea and into the deep oceans to the north. Thus, the Weddell Gyre plays an important role in the properties of deep ocean waters on a global scale.

The goals of ANDREX are to investigate the exchange of water masses between the ACC and the Weddell Sea, including AABW formation and ventilation rates, carbon and nutrient cycling, the influence of fresh water input from sea ice, precipitation and glacial melt, and the role of the Weddell Gyre in anthropogenic carbon sequestration. The project includes hydrographic, ventilation tracer, biogeochemical and bathymetric measurements along the outer rim of the Weddell Gyre.

ANDREX is funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Antarctic Funding Initiative (AFI) and involves scientists from the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOC), the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), the University of East Anglia (UEA), the University of Manchester, the Alfred Wegener Institut (AWI) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI).

For more information please see the official project website at ANDREX

Data Activity or Cruise Information

Data Activity

Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 2009-01-05
End Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 2009-01-05
Organization Undertaking ActivityNational Oceanography Centre, Southampton
Country of OrganizationUnited Kingdom
Originator's Data Activity IdentifierJC030_CTD_CTD12
Platform Categorylowered unmanned submersible

BODC Sample Metadata Report for JC030_CTD_CTD12

Sample reference number Nominal collection volume(l) Bottle rosette position Bottle firing sequence number Minimum pressure sampled (dbar) Maximum pressure sampled (dbar) Depth of sampling point (m) Bottle type Sample quality flag Bottle reference Comments
233487   20.00 1 1 5110.10 5110.50 5003.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233488   20.00 2 2 5059.00 5059.30 4954.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233489   20.00 3 3 5006.30 5007.00 4903.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233490   20.00 4 4 4901.40 4902.00 4801.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233491   20.00 5 5 4596.50 4596.90 4505.90 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233492   20.00 6 6 4080.10 4081.80 4005.00 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233493   20.00 7 7 3565.10 3565.90 3503.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233494   20.00 8 8 3051.80 3052.50 3002.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233495   20.00 9 9 2541.70 2542.60 2503.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233496   20.00 10 10 2031.40 2032.30 2003.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233497   20.00 11 11 1776.70 1777.50 1753.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233498   20.00 12 12 1521.20 1522.80 1502.60 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233926   20.00 13 13 1012.50 1013.50 1001.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233927   20.00 14 14  810.80  811.20  802.00 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233928   20.00 15 15  607.60  609.70  602.40 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233929   20.00 16 16  405.70  406.70  402.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233930   20.00 17 17  305.50  305.70  302.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233931   20.00 18 18  204.20  204.60  202.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233932   20.00 19 19  154.10  154.70  153.00 Niskin bottle Bottle leak   Bottle leaked
233933   20.00 20 20  104.20  104.90  103.70 Niskin bottle Bottle leak   Bottle did not close
233934   20.00 21 21   77.80   78.10   77.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233935   20.00 22 22   52.70   53.40   52.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
233936   20.00 23 23   27.60   28.10   27.50 Niskin bottle Bottle leak   Bottle leaked
233937   20.00 24 24    8.70    9.20    8.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    

Please note:the supplied parameters may not have been sampled from all the bottle firings described in the table above. Cross-match the Sample Reference Number above against the SAMPRFNM value in the data file to identify the relevant metadata.


Cruise Name JC030
Departure Date 2008-12-26
Arrival Date 2009-01-30
Principal Scientist(s)Sheldon Bacon (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)
Ship RRS James Cook

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here

Fixed Station Information

Fixed Station Information

Station NameWOCE Southern Repeat Section 4
CategoryOffshore route/traverse

World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Southern Repeat Section 4

WOCE established a repeat hydrographic section across Northern Weddell sea and designated it SR04. The section is located between Antarctic Peninsula and south of South Africa within a bounding box of -44.00583, -53.624 (North-Western corner) and -71.02167, 38.99683 (South-Eastern corner).

A table of cruises which have occupied SR04 is presented below with links to the relevant cruise reports or cruise narratives (where available).

Cruise Country Ship Start Date End Date Comments
ANT XIII/2 Germany FS Polarstern 06/09/1989 08/10/1989 -
ANT IX/2 Germany FS Polarstern 17/11/1990 30/12/1990 -
ANT X/4 Germany FS Polarstern 21/05/1992 05/08/1992 -
ANT X/7 Germany FS Polarstern 03/12/1992 22/01/1993 -
ANT XIII/4 Germany FS Polarstern 17/03/1996 20/05/1996 WOCE line also known as S04A
ANT XV/4 Germany FS Polarstern 28/03/1998 23/05/1998 -
JC030 United Kingdom RRS James Cook 26/12/2008 30/01/2009 Repeat of ANT XIII/4

Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 1102042 1102054 1102066 1102078 1102091 1102109 1102110 1102122 1102134 1102146 1102171 1102183 1102195 1102263 1102287 1102299 1102306 1102318 1102331 1253135 1253159 1253160 1253172 1253184 1253196 1253203 1253215 1253239 1253240 1253252 1253264 1253276 1253288 1253307 1253319 1253320 1253332

BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain