Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1004336
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Public domain data
These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.
The recommended acknowledgment is
"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."
Neil Brown MK3 CTD
The Neil Brown MK3 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiler consists of an integral unit containing pressure, temperature and conductivity sensors with an optional dissolved oxygen sensor in a pressure-hardened casing. The most widely used variant in the 1980s and 1990s was the MK3B. An upgrade to this, the MK3C, was developed to meet the requirements of the WOCE project.
The MK3C includes a low hysteresis, titanium strain gauge pressure transducer. The transducer temperature is measured separately, allowing correction for the effects of temperature on pressure measurements. The MK3C conductivity cell features a free flow, internal field design that eliminates ducted pumping and is not affected by external metallic objects such as guard cages and external sensors.
Additional optional sensors include pH and a pressure-temperature fluorometer. The instrument is no longer in production, but is supported (repair and calibration) by General Oceanics.
These specification apply to the MK3C version.
3200 m (optional)
|-3 to 32°C||1 to 6.5 S cm-1|
0.03% FS < 1 msec
0.003°C < 30 msec
0.0001 S cm-1
0.0003 S cm-1 < 30 msec
Further details can be found in the specification sheet.
RRS Discovery 199 CTD Data Documentation
CTD profile data are presented from the WOCE A11 cruise Discovery 199 as reported by Saunders et al. (1993).
Instrumentation and Methodology
The CTD profiles were taken with a Neil Brown Systems MkIIIb CTD (Deep01) mounted beneath a bottle rosette. The CTD was fitted with a pressure sensor, conductivity cell, platinum resistance thermometer, a SensorMedic dissolved oxygen sensor, a Sea Tech Inc. 100cm path transmissometer s/n 35, a Simrad altimeter model 807-200m and an IOSDL 10 kHz pinger. No fluorometer was attached to the CTD.
Lowering rates for the CTD package were generally in the range 0.5-1.0ms-1 but could be up to 1.5ms-1. CTD data were logged at 16 frames per second. The CTD deck unit passes raw data to a dedicated Level A microcomputer where 1 second averages are assembled. During this process the Level A calculates the rate of change of temperature and a median sorting routine detects and removes pressure spikes. These data are sent to the Level B for archival. The data are then passed to a Level C workstation for conversion to Pstar format and calibration.
A total of 91 stations were occupied (12247 - 12337).
The 1 second data passed to the Level C were converted to Pstar format and initially calibrated with coefficients from laboratory calibrations followed by a number of calibration corrections. The up cast data were extracted for merging with the bottle firing codes, on time, thus the CTD variables were reconciled with the bottle samples. Final calibrations were applied using the sample bottle data. Finally, down cast data were extracted, sorted on pressure and averaged to 2db values, with any gaps filled by linear interpolation.
The data were worked up to WOCE standards by the data originators before being supplied to BODC.
BODC Data Processing
No further calibrations were applied to the data received by BODC. BODC were mainly concerned with the screening and banking of the data.
The CTD data were received as 2db averaged pressure sorted down cast data. Parameters were pressure (dbar), temperature (°C), salinity (psu), and oxygen (µmol/kg). No transmissometer data were received.
The data were converted into the BODC internal format (PXF) to allow the use of in-house software tools, notably the graphics editor. The oxygen data were converted from µmol/kg to µmol/l.
Spikes in the data were manually flagged 'suspect' by modification of the associated quality control flag. In this way none of the original data values were edited or deleted during quality control. Spikiness was seen in some oxygen profiles at depth and these were flagged suspect. The temperature and salinity profiles for 258-263 exhibited many large instabilities and these have been flagged suspect. For profile 320 the T+S is fairly constant between 80-530db.
Once screened, the CTD data were loaded into a database under the Oracle relational database management system. The start time stored in the database is the CTD deployment time, and the end time is the time the CTD was removed from the water. Actually these times are more precisely the start and end of data logging. Latitude and longitude are the mean positions between the start and end times calculated from the master navigation in the binary merged file.
Saunders, P.M. et al. (1993). RRS Discovery Cruise 199. Institute of Oceanographic Sciences Deacon Laboratory, Cruise Report No. 234, 69pp.
World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a major international experiment which made measurements and undertook modelling studies of the deep oceans in order to provide a much improved understanding of the role of ocean circulation in changing and ameliorating the Earth's climate.
WOCE had two major goals:
Goal 1. To develop models to predict climate and to collect the data necessary to test them.
Goal 2. To determine the representativeness of the Goal 1 observations and to deduce cost effective means of determining long-term changes in ocean circulation.
The UK made a substantial contribution to the international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) project by focusing on two important regions:
- Southern Ocean - links all the worlds oceans, controlling global climate.
- North Atlantic - directly affects the climate of Europe.
A major part of the UK effort was in the Southern Ocean and work included:
- Two surveys, in the South Atlantic as part of the WOCE Hydrographic Programme.
- SWINDEX, a year long study of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) where it crosses major topography south of Africa.
- ADOX, a study of deep water flow from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.
- ACCLAIM, a study of the ACC by altimetry and island measurements.
In the North Atlantic the UK undertook:
- NATRE, a purposeful tracer experiment to look at cross isopycnic processes.
- CONVEX, a study of the deep ocean circulation and its changes.
- VIVALDI, a seven year programme of seasonally repeated surveys to study the upper ocean.
- Long-term observations of ocean climate in the North West Approaches.
Satellite ocean surface topography, temperature and wind data were merged with in situ observations and models to create a complete description of ocean circulation, eddy motion and the way the ocean is driven by the atmosphere.
The surveys were forerunners to the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). GOOS was later established to monitor annual to decadal changes in ocean circulation and heat storage which are vital in the prediction of climate change.
|Principal Scientist(s)||Peter M Saunders (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences Deacon Laboratory)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||WOCE Hydrographic Programme Section A11|
WOCE Hydrographic Programme Section A11
This section is part of the One-Time Survey of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) designated A11. A hydrographic section from Chile to South Africa was covered and a full suite of physical, chemical, biological, meteorological and tracer measurements were made.
This section was covered by Discovery cruise D199 and took place from 22 December 1992 to 1 February 1993. The map below shows the geographical coverage of section A11.
Related Fixed Station activities are detailed in Appendix 1
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|
Appendix 1: WOCE Hydrographic Programme Section A11
Related series for this Fixed Station are presented in the table below. Further information can be found by following the appropriate links.
If you are interested in these series, please be aware we offer a multiple file download service. Should your credentials be insufficient for automatic download, the service also offers a referral to our Enquiries Officer who may be able to negotiate access.
|Series Identifier||Data Category||Start date/time||Start position||Cruise|
|1003695||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-27 23:00:00||44.98167 S, 60.00483 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003702||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-28 01:43:00||44.9945 S, 59.939 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003714||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-28 04:24:00||44.984 S, 59.78417 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003726||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-28 09:36:00||44.97967 S, 59.1195 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003738||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-28 14:29:00||44.9905 S, 58.54733 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003751||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-28 17:39:00||44.988 S, 58.4165 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003763||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-28 21:12:00||44.99817 S, 58.36167 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003775||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-29 02:16:00||44.99383 S, 57.82083 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003787||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-29 09:15:00||45.01083 S, 57.41083 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003799||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-29 15:09:00||45.01817 S, 56.998 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003806||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-29 22:09:00||45.02283 S, 56.49917 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003818||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-30 08:17:00||45.02417 S, 55.75083 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003831||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-30 16:59:00||44.98417 S, 54.78633 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003843||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-31 03:23:00||45.02 S, 53.8355 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003855||CTD or STD cast||1992-12-31 15:29:00||44.9395 S, 52.81567 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003867||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-01 01:08:00||45.03467 S, 51.74267 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003879||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-02 19:19:00||45.041 S, 50.7495 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003880||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-03 03:24:00||45.02283 S, 49.75367 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003892||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-03 11:08:00||45.00583 S, 48.76717 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003911||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-03 18:57:00||44.9985 S, 47.76267 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003923||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-04 02:48:00||45.00883 S, 46.75183 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003935||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-04 10:27:00||45.00383 S, 45.75367 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003947||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-04 17:50:00||44.98967 S, 44.7375 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003959||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-05 01:10:00||44.9985 S, 43.75217 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003960||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-05 08:55:00||44.99833 S, 42.75367 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003972||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-05 18:08:00||44.9905 S, 41.754 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003984||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-06 05:41:00||44.99833 S, 40.75283 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1003996||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-06 14:27:00||44.983 S, 39.76567 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004011||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-06 22:29:00||44.98167 S, 38.731 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004023||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-07 06:12:00||45.01017 S, 37.71617 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004035||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-07 14:19:00||44.986 S, 36.7485 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004047||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-08 00:27:00||44.99167 S, 35.75117 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004059||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-08 08:24:00||44.997 S, 34.76183 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004060||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-08 15:57:00||44.99067 S, 33.77317 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004072||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-09 01:15:00||45.01367 S, 32.77283 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004084||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-09 08:50:00||45.001 S, 31.72033 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004096||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-09 16:49:00||44.99 S, 30.75683 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004103||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-10 01:40:00||45.0 S, 29.77317 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004115||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-10 12:09:00||44.9965 S, 28.73967 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004127||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-10 20:48:00||45.00733 S, 27.76967 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004139||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-11 04:20:00||45.006 S, 26.73467 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004140||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-11 11:33:00||44.99417 S, 25.735 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004152||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-11 19:04:00||45.01967 S, 24.74883 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004164||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-12 02:01:00||44.98617 S, 23.72633 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004176||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-12 08:48:00||44.99567 S, 22.75883 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004188||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-12 16:08:00||45.013 S, 21.73567 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004207||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-13 00:28:00||44.994 S, 20.71817 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004219||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-15 04:25:00||44.98983 S, 19.74633 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004220||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-15 13:38:00||45.01267 S, 18.57367 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004232||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-15 21:06:00||44.99983 S, 17.39833 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004244||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-16 04:19:00||44.99083 S, 16.2225 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004256||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-16 11:45:00||45.00567 S, 15.00783 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004268||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-16 18:24:00||44.5435 S, 14.00417 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004281||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-17 01:33:00||44.11233 S, 13.0095 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004293||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-17 08:23:00||43.66683 S, 12.02117 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004300||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-17 15:18:00||43.23283 S, 11.04633 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004312||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-17 22:33:00||42.81833 S, 10.0895 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004324||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-18 05:47:00||42.371 S, 9.091 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004348||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-18 20:23:00||41.52333 S, 7.20333 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004361||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-19 03:11:00||41.1535 S, 6.403 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004373||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-19 12:18:00||40.70717 S, 5.44317 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004385||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-19 18:09:00||40.42283 S, 4.829 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004397||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-20 02:52:00||40.0835 S, 4.04067 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004404||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-20 10:30:00||39.71967 S, 3.252 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004416||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-20 17:58:00||39.354 S, 2.47867 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004428||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-21 01:07:00||38.97067 S, 1.69133 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004441||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-21 08:14:00||38.606 S, 0.94233 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004453||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-21 15:39:00||38.24633 S, 0.162 W||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004465||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-22 00:13:00||37.88183 S, 0.59067 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004477||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-22 07:33:00||37.5225 S, 1.34883 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004489||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-22 14:35:00||37.15067 S, 2.10383 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004490||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-22 21:46:00||36.79033 S, 2.85833 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004508||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-23 06:23:00||36.27517 S, 3.92817 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004521||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-23 15:22:00||35.7495 S, 4.9985 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004533||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-23 23:57:00||35.213 S, 6.03433 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004545||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-24 09:15:00||34.7045 S, 7.07017 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004557||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-24 17:51:00||34.15317 S, 8.11817 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004569||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-25 03:01:00||33.67833 S, 9.14083 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004570||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-25 15:47:00||33.09283 S, 10.14917 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004582||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-28 05:33:00||30.22633 S, 15.61883 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004594||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-28 08:49:00||30.47083 S, 15.13517 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004601||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-28 11:01:00||30.57033 S, 14.98 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004613||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-28 13:25:00||30.671 S, 14.78867 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004625||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-28 16:12:00||30.75533 S, 14.643 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004637||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-28 19:48:00||30.89067 S, 14.36767 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004649||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-29 00:46:00||31.23533 S, 13.74983 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004650||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-29 06:11:00||31.54183 S, 13.16233 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004662||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-29 13:03:00||31.9605 S, 12.3675 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004674||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-29 19:55:00||32.32033 S, 11.6425 E||RRS Discovery D199|
|1004686||CTD or STD cast||1993-01-30 03:30:00||32.70517 S, 10.89733 E||RRS Discovery D199|