Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1044351

Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Meteorology -unspecified
Instrument Type
Vaisala HMP temperature and humidity sensor  meteorological packages
Vaisala PTB100 barometric pressure sensor  meteorological packages
Vaisala WAA151 cup anemometer  anemometers
Vaisala WAV151 wind vane  anemometers
Kipp and Zonen CM6B pyranometer  radiometers
Skye Instruments SKE510 PAR energy sensor  radiometers
Instrument Mounting research vessel
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Sheldon Bacon
Originating Organization National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
Processing Status banked
Project(s) Rapid Climate Change Programme

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier D298_PRODQXF_MET
BODC Series Reference 1044351

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2005-08-25 02:07
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2005-09-21 00:01
Nominal Cycle Interval 120.0 seconds

Spatial Co-ordinates

Start Latitude 55.76650 N ( 55° 46.0' N )
End Latitude 57.86390 N ( 57° 51.8' N )
Start Longitude 4.86310 W ( 4° 51.8' W )
End Longitude 36.23510 W ( 36° 14.1' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.0 to 0.01 n.miles
Minimum Sensor Depth -20.0 m
Maximum Sensor Depth -20.0 m
Minimum Sensor Height -
Maximum Sensor Height -
Sea Floor Depth -
Sensor Distribution Fixed common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth which is effectively fixed for the duration of the series
Sensor Depth Datum Approximate - Depth is only approximate
Sea Floor Depth Datum -


BODC CODE Rank Units Short Title Title
AADYAA01 1 Days Date(Loch_Day) Date (time from 00:00 01/01/1760 to 00:00 UT on day)
AAFDZZ01 1 Days Time(Day_Fract) Time (time between 00:00 UT and timestamp)
ALATGP01 1 Degrees Lat_GPS Latitude north (WGS84) by unspecified GPS system
ALONGP01 1 Degrees Lon_GPS Longitude east (WGS84) by unspecified GPS system
CAPHZZ01 1 Millibars AirPress Pressure (measured variable) exerted by the atmosphere
CDTASS01 1 Degrees Celsius AirTemp Temperature of the atmosphere by dry bulb thermometer
CRELSS01 1 Percent Air_RelHumid Relative humidity of the atmosphere by humidity sensor
CSLRR1XS 1 Watts per square metre Solar_rad_MaxSens Downwelling vector irradiance as energy (solar (300-3000nm) wavelengths) in the atmosphere by pyranometer and taking the maximum value from two or more sensors
DWIRRXMX 1 Watts per square metre SurfVParMax Downwelling vector irradiance as energy (PAR wavelengths) in the atmosphere by cosine-collector radiometer and taking the maximum value from two or more sensors
EWDASS01 1 Degrees True WindDirFrom Wind from direction in the atmosphere by in-situ anemometer
EWEWSS01 1 Metres per second WindVelE Eastward wind velocity in the atmosphere by in-situ anemometer
EWNSSS01 1 Metres per second WindVelN Northward wind velocity in the atmosphere by in-situ anemometer
EWSBSS01 1 Metres per second WindSpd Wind speed in the atmosphere by in-situ anemometer

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database

RAPID Cruise D298 Underway Meteorology Data Quality Report


There are many occasions where ship's motion is influencing wind direction post-correction. Where obvious, these have been flagged as suspect. However, there are periods where the number of points affected is too great or the data are generally noisy, making it difficult to flag individual erroneous points.

Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."

Narrative Documents

Kipp and Zonen Pyranometer Model CM6B

The CM6B pyranometer is intended for routine global solar radiation measurement research on a level surface. The CM6B features a sixty-four thermocouple junction (series connected) sensing element. The sensing element is coated with a highly stable carbon based non-organic coating, which delivers excellent spectral absorption and long term stability characteristics. The sensing element is housed under two concentric fitting Schott K5 glass domes.


Dimensions (W x H) 150.0 mm x 91.5 mm
Weight 850 grams
Operating Temperature -40°C to +80°C
Spectral Range 305 - 2800 nm
(50% points)
Sensitivity 9 -15 µV/W/m 2
Impedance (nominal) 70 - 100 ohm
Response Time (95%) 30 sec
Non-linearity < ± 1.2% (<1000 W/m 2 )
Temperature dependence of sensitivity < ± 2% (-10 to +40°C)
Zero-offset due to temperature changes < ± 4 W/m 2 at 5 K/h temperature change

Skye Instruments PAR Energy Sensor Model SKE 510

The SKE 510 is suitable for measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from natural or artificial light sources. The sensor is fully waterproof and guaranteed submersible to 4m depth, and indoor versions are also available.

The instrument uses a blue-enhanced planar diffused silicon detector to measure energy (in W m -2 ) over the 400-700 nm waveband. It has a cosine-corrected head and a square spectral response. The sensor can operate over a temperature range of -35 to 70 °C and a humidity range of 0-100% RH.


Sensitivity (current) 1.5µA or 100 W m -2
Sensitivity (voltage) 1mV or 100 W m -2
Working Range 0-5000 W m -2
Linearity error 0.2%
Absolute calibration error typ. less than 3%
5% max
Response time - voltage output 10 ns
Cosine error 3%
Azimuth error less than 1%
Temperature co-efficient ±0.1% per °C
Internal resistance - voltage output c. 300 ohms
Longterm stability ±2%
Material Dupont 'Delrin'
Dimensions 34 mm diameter
38mm height
Cable 2 core screened
7 - 2 - 2C
Sensor Passband 400 - 700 nm
Detector Silicon photocell
Filters Glass type and/or metal interference

Vaisala Analog Barometers Models PTB100 (A), (B) and PTB101 (B), (C)

The PTB 100 series analog barometers are designed both for accurate barometric measurements at room temperature and for general environmental pressure monitoring over a wide temperature range. The long-term stability of the barometer minimizes the need for field adjustment in many applications.

Physical Specifications

Size 97 x 60 x 22 mm
Weight 85g

The barometers use the BAROCAP * silicon capacitive absolute pressure sensor developed by Vaisala for barometric pressure measurements. The BAROCAP * sensor combines the elasticity characteristics and mechanical stability of a single-crystal silicon with the proven capacitive detection principle.

Sensor Specifications

Model Number Pressure Range
Temperature Range
Humidity Range Total Accuracy
PTB100A 800 to 1060 -40 to +60 non-condensing +20 °C ± 0.3 mbar
0 to +40 °C ± 1.0 mbar
-20 to +45 °C ± 1.5 mbar
-40 to +60 °C ± 2.5 mbar
PTB100B 600 to 1060 -40 to +60 non-condensing +20 °C ± 0.5 mbar
0 to +40 °C ± 1.5 mbar
-20 to +45 °C ± 2.0 mbar
-40 to +60 °C ± 3.0 mbar
PTB101B 600 to 1060 -40 to +60 non-condensing +20 °C ± 0.5 mbar
0 to +40 °C ± 1.5 mbar
-20 to +45 °C ± 2.0 mbar
-40 to +60 °C ± 3.0 mbar
PTB101C 900 to 1100 -40 to +60 non-condensing +20 °C ± 0.3 mbar
0 to +40 °C ± 1.0 mbar
-20 to +45 °C ± 1.5 mbar
-40 to +60 °C ± 2.5 mbar

* BAROCAP is a registered trademark of Vaisala

Vaisala Temperature and Relative Humidity HMP Sensors

A family of sensors and instruments (sensors plus integral displays or loggers) for the measurement of air temperature and relative humidity. All are based on a probe containing a patent (HUMICAP) capacitive thin polymer film capacitanece humidity sensor and a Pt100 platinum resistance thermometer. The probes are available with a wide range of packaging, cabling and interface options all of which have designations of the form HMPnn or HMPnnn such as HMP45 and HMP230. Vaisala sensors are incorporated into weather stations and marketed by Campbell Scientific.

All versions operate at up to 100% humidity. Operating temperature ranges vary between models, allowing users to select the version best suited to their requirements.

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheets for the HMP 45 series , HMP 70 series and HMP 230 series .

Vaisala WA15 Wind Set

The WAA151 combines a WAA151 anemometer and a WAV151 wind vane, to measure wind speed and direction.

WAA151 Anemometer

The anemometer has three lightweight conical cups in the cup wheel. A wind-rotated chopper disc, attached to the cup wheel's shaft, cuts an infrared light beam 14 times per revolution, generating a pulse output from a phototransistor. The output rate can be regarded as directly proportional to the wind speed. However, for the best accuracy, a transfer function is used to compensate starting inertia and slight over-speeding:

U f = 0.328 + 0.101 x R, where U f = wind speed and R = output pulse rate

A thermostatically controlled heating element in the shaft tunnel prevents the bearings from freezing in cold environments.

WAV151 Wind Vane

The WAV151 is a counter-balanced optelectronic wind vane. Infrared LEDs and phototransistors are mounted in six orbits around a 6 bit Gray coded disc. Turned by the vane, the disc determines the code received by the phototransistors.


  WAA151 Anemometer WAV151 Wind Vane
Measurement range 0.4-75 m s -1 0-300° (at 0.4-75 m s -1 )
Starting threshold < 0.5 m s -1 < 0.4 m s -1
Resolution - ±2.8°
Accuracy ±0.17 m s -1 (within range 0.4-60 m s -1 ) < ± 3°
Output 0-750 Hz square wave 6 bit parallel Gray code
Operating temperature -50°C to 55°C -50°C to 55°C

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification document .

RAPID Cruise D298 Underway Meteorology Instrumentation

Air temperature, humidity, air pressure, PAR, TIR and wind velocity were measured using a thermistor, hygrometer, barometer and propeller anemometer located on the foremast approximately 20 metres above the sea surface. The details of these sensors are shown in the table below.

Sensor Serial number Last calibration date
Vaisala PTB100A (barometric pressure) sensor Z4740021 Unknown
Vaisala HMP44L (air temperature and relative humidity) sensor U1420016 Unknown
SKYE PPAR 28558 21/12/2004
SKYE SPAR 28557 21/12/2004
Kipp and Zonen PTIR 047463 22/12/2004
Kipp and Zonen STIR 047462 22/12/2004
Vaisala Wind vane WAV - -
Vaisala Anemometer WAA - -

RAPID Cruise D298 Underway Meteorology Processing

Originator's processing

Data were transferred from the raw RVS format to PSTAR format using unix command scripts, compiled into 2 minute averages and corrections to the wind speed and direction were applied to remove the effects of ship movement.

BODC processing

The 2 minute averaged navigational and bathymetric data, were transferred from PSTAR format into BODC internal format (a subset of netCDF) to allow use of the in-house visualisation tool (EDSERPLO). Reformatting and data calibration was carried out, and is discussed in the individual parameter sections below. Each data channel was visually inspected and any spikes or periods of dubious data flagged as suspect. The capabilities of the screening software allows all possible comparative screening checks between channels.

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

Data were converted from raw voltages to Watts per square meter using manufacturer's calibrations and starboard and port sensor data were merged.

Solar Radiation (TIR)

Data were converted from raw voltages to Watts per square meter using manufacturer's calibrations and starboard and port sensor data were merged.

RAPID Cruise D298 Underway Meteorology, Surface Hydrography and Navigation Series

Cruise Details

Dates 23 August - 25 September 2005
Principal Scientific Officer Dr Sheldon Bacon (NOC,S)
Cruise Report Bacon, S. and et al., 2006. RRS Discovery Cruise 298, 23 Aug-25 Sep 2005 . Cape Farewell and Eirik Ridge (CFER-1). Southampton, UK, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, 113pp. (National Oceanography Centre Southampton Cruise Report, 10).

D298 was conducted in the vicinty of Cape Farewell, southern Greenland, during early autumn 2005. The main priority of the cruise was to complete a number of mooring operations, but this work was combined with additional hydrographic survey work, sediment coring and sub-bottom profiling.

Data Processing Procedures

Underway sea surface hydrography, meteorology and ship's navigation data are merged into common files using time (UTC) as the primary linking key. Any additional data calibrations are applied as appropriate and are discussed in the individual instrument sections.

Data were transferred to BODC's in-house NetCDF format, QXF, through the BODC Underway Data System (BUDS). During transfer data were time averaged to 120 second intervals. The transfer process also includes the flagging of data which fall outside of the range of acceptable values for each parameter.

Each data channel is visually inspected on a graphics workstation and any spikes or periods of dubious data are flagged as suspect. The capabilities of the workstation screening software allows all possible comparative screening checks between channels. The system also has the facililty of simultaneously displaying the data and the ship's position on a map to enable data screening to take oceanographic climatology into account.

Project Information

Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) Programme

Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) is a £20 million, six-year (2001-2007) programme of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The programme aims to improve our ability to quantify the probability and magnitude of future rapid change in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean's Thermohaline Circulation.

Scientific Objectives


Overall 38 projects have been funded by the RAPID programme. These include 4 which focus on Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), and 5 international projects jointly funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the Research Council of Norway and NERC.

The RAPID effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for collaborative projects reviewed jointly with the NERC proposals. Three projects were funded by NSF.

A proportion of RAPID funding as been made available for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) as part of NERC's Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI). The SBRI aims to stimulate innovation in the economy by encouraging more high-tech small firms to start up or to develop new research capacities. As a result 4 projects have been funded.

RAPID - Cape Farewell and Eirik Ridge: Interannual to Millennial Thermohaline Circulation Variability

This project was funded under the NERC Rapid Climate Change Programme, grant number NER/T/S/2002/00453. Dr. Sheldon Bacon (Southampton Oceanography Centre) was the Principal Investigator, with co-Investigators from the University of Southampton, Prof. D. A. Stow and Dr. E. J. Rohling. The project started in December 2003 and ended in November 2008.

The project used a combination of hydrography and palaeoceanography measurements to determine the spectrum of variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current, on timescales from days to millennia. The project focused on deglacial to Holocene variability; in particular, seeking to characterise the onset and endings of three cold periods: the Younger Dryas (YD; 12.5-11.5 ka BP), the ~8.2 ka event, and the Little Ice Age (LIA; 16th-19th century AD).

The objectives of the project included:

Most of the fieldwork was carried out on 2 cruises in the Cape Farewell and Irminger Sea vicinity:

Cruise Start End Comments
D298 2008-08-23 2005-09-05 Work included mooring deployments, sediment coring, sampling for isotopes and CTD casts
D309-310 2006-08-18 2006-09-05 Work included mooring turn-arounds and CTD casts.

Data Activity or Cruise Information


Cruise Name D298
Departure Date 2005-08-23
Arrival Date 2005-09-25
Principal Scientist(s)Sheldon Bacon (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)
Ship RRS Discovery

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here

Fixed Station Information

No Fixed Station Information held for the Series

BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain