Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1176410
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RAPID Cruise D382 CTD instrument description
CTD unit and auxiliary sensors
The CTD configuration comprised a Sea-Bird Electronics 9plus system #09P-46253-0869, with accompanying Sea-Bird Electronics 11plus deck unit #11P-34173-0676. All instruments were attached to a Sea-Bird 24 position carousel containing a IOS/NOCS 10kHz beacon (s/n B3) and 12 Ocean Test Equipment 10L water samplers (s/ns 1A through 12A) and were used in alternate positions on the CTD frame. This was to allow moored instruments to be strapped to the frame for calibration purposes. The table below contains information about the sensors on the frame.
|Sensor Unit||Model||Serial Number||Full Specification||Last calibration date (YYYY-MM-DD)||Comments|
|CTD underwater unit||SBE 9plus||09P-46253-0869||SBE 9plus||-||-|
|Temperature sensor||SBE 3P||03P-5494||SBE 03P||09/05/2012||Primary sensor|
|Temperature sensor||SBE 3P||03P-5495||SBE 03P||06/07/2012||Secondary sensor casts 1-14|
|Temperature sensor||SBE 3P||03P-4872||SBE 03P||04/09/2012||Secondary sensor casts 15-18|
|Conductivity sensor||SBE 4||04C-3698||SBE 04C||08/05/2012||Primary sensor|
|Conductivity sensor||SBE 4||04C-3874||SBE 04C||12/07/2012||Secondary sensor|
|Digiquartz temperature compensated Pressure sensor||SBE 9plus digiquartz||100898||-||06/01/2012||-|
|Submersible pump||SBE 5T||05T-3085||-||-||-|
|Submersible pump||SBE 5T||05T-3088||-||-||-|
The salinity samples from the CTD were analysed during the cruise using a Guildline Autosal model 8400B(#60839).
Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers
The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.
The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.
Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors
The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.
The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.
Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.
Deck unit or SEARAM
Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.
Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:
|Parameter||Range||Initial accuracy||Resolution at 24 Hz||Response time|
|Temperature||-5 to 35°C||0.001°C||0.0002°C||0.065 sec|
|Conductivity||0 to 7 S m-1||0.0003 S m-1||0.00004 S m-1||0.065 sec (pumped)|
|Pressure||0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m)||0.015% of full scale||0.001% of full scale||0.015 sec|
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.
RAPID Cruise D382 BODC CTD data processing
The data arrived at BODC in 18 MSTAR format files representing the CTD casts conducted during cruise D382. The data contained in the files are the downcast data averaged to a 2db pressure grid. The casts were reformatted to BODC's internal NetCDF format. The following table shows the mapping of variables within the MSTAR files to appropriate BODC parameter codes:
|Originator's variable||Units||Description||BODC parameter code||Units||Comments|
|press||dbar||Pressure exerted by the water column||PRESPR01||dbar||Manufacturer's calibration applied.|
|temp||°C||Temperature of the water column by CTD (Primary sensor)||TEMPST01||°C||ITS-90|
|temp1||°C||Temperature of the water column by CTD (Primary sensor)||-||-||Not transferred. temp and temp1 contain the same data values so only temp was transferred.|
|temp2||°C||Temperature of the water column by CTD (Secondary sensor)||TEMPST02||°C||ITS-90. Data from temp were deemed superior by Originator. Not included in final BODC data set.|
|psal||-||Practical salinity of the water column (Primary sensor data)||PSALST01||-||Calculated by Originator using calibrated conductivity.|
|psal1||-||Practical salinity of the water column (Primary sensor data)||-||-||Not transferred. psal and psal1 contain the same data values so only psal was transferred.|
|psal2||-||Practical salinity of the water column (Secondary sensor data)||PSALST02||-||Calculated by Originator using uncalibrated conductivity. Data from psal were deemed superior by Originator. Not included in final BODC data set.|
|potemp||°C||Potential temperature of the water column (Primary sensor)||POTMCV01||°C||Not transferred. Derived by BODC using temp and press.|
|potemp1||°C||Potential temperature of the water column (Primary sensor)||-||-||Not transferred. Contains the same data values as potemp.|
|potemp2||°C||Potential temperature of the water column (Secondary sensor)||POTMCV02||°C||Not transferred. Derived by BODC using temp2 and press. Not included in final BODC data set.|
|cond||mS/cm||Electrical conductivity of the water column (Primary sensor)||CNCLCCI1||S/m||/10. Calibrated by Data Originator with discrete salinity samples.|
|cond1||mS/cm||Electrical conductivity of the water column (Primary sensor)||-||-||Not transferred. Contains the same data values as cond.|
|cond2||mS/cm||Electrical conductivity of the water column (Secondary sensor)||CNDCST02||S/m||Data from cond were deemed superior by Originator. Not included in final BODC data set.|
|depth||metres||Depth below surface converted from pressure using UNESCO algorithm||DEPHPR01||metres||-.|
|altimeter||meters||Height above bed from CTD||AHSFZZ01||metres||-|
|time||seconds||Time in seconds since the origin defined in the metadata field data_time_origin||-||-||Not transferred|
|-||-||-||SIGTPR01||kg/m3||Derived by BODC using POTMCV01 and PSALST01.|
|-||-||-||SIGTPR02||kg/m3||Derived by BODC using POTMCV02 and PSALST02. Not included in final BODC data set.|
|-||-||-||TOKGPR01||kg/l||Derived by BODC using SIGTPR01|
|-||-||-||TOKGPR02||kg/l||Derived by BODC using SIGTPR02. Not included in final BODC data set.|
The reformatted data were visualised using the in-house EDSERPLO software. Suspect data were marked by adding an appropriate quality control flag, and missing data marked by setting both the data to an appropriate value and setting the quality control flag.
Detailed metadata and documentation were compiled and linked to the data.
RAPID Cruise D382 Originator's CTD data processing
A total of 18 CTD casts were performed during the cruise along approximately 26.5°N, which includes the Eastern boundary, Mid Atlantic Ridge and Western boundary sections of the RAPIDMOC array. On each cast, up to 12 SBE37 MicroCATs were attached to the frame for calibration purposes. The CTD casts provided start-point calibrations for instruments to be deployed and end-point calibrations for recovered instruments. For recovered instruments that were re-deployed, the post-deployment cast provided a pre-deployment calibration. The instruments were set to the fastest sampling rate and the CTD lowered as normal. On the upcast, the bottle stops were increased to 5 minutes to allow time for stabilisation and the provision of more accurate data. To allow the instruments to be attached to the CTD frame using bespoke attachments, up to 12 sample bottles were removed on all casts.
Raw CTD data were transferred from the Sea-Bird deck unit to a LINUX machine via Sea-Bird software. The binary files are converted using Sea-Bird processing software. Physical units were calculated from the frequency data using the manufacturer's calibration routines and the data converted to ASCII format. The ASCII files were converted to MSTAR format and MEXEC programs run to process the data which included reducing the frequency of the data from 24Hz to 1Hz, calibrating the data, and averaging the downcast to a 2db pressure grid. A calibration was produced for the both CTD conductivity sensors by merging the salinity sample data with the CTD data. Details of the MEXEC programs used and further details of the processing performed can be found in McCarthy et al. (2012).
Independent samples, obtained from the bottles on the CTD frame, were used to calibrate the CTD conductivity data. Only bottle samples that were taken during stable periods of each sensor were used to derive a calibration.
A multiplicative conductivity correction for each single station for time drift of the two sensors was derived. The correction was applied to the 24Hz data and salinities re-calculated. The correction lowered the conductivity by 8.6914E-06 and 1.11259E-05 for the primary and secondary sensor respectively for each successive station.
McCarthy, G. (2012) RRS Discovery Cruise D382, 08 Oct-24 Nov 2012. RAPID moorings cruise report. Southampton, UK, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, 196pp. (National Oceanography Centre Cruise Report, No 21)
Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5N (RAPIDMOC)
There is a northward transport of heat throughout the Atlantic, reaching a maximum of 1.3PW (25% of the global heat flux) around 24.5°N. The heat transport is a balance of the northward flux of a warm Gulf Stream, and a southward flux of cooler thermocline and cold North Atlantic Deep Water that is known as the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). As a consequence of the MOC northwest Europe enjoys a mild climate for its latitude: however abrupt rearrangement of the Atlantic Circulation has been shown in climate models and in palaeoclimate records to be responsible for a cooling of European climate of between 5-10°C. A principal objective of the RAPID programme is the development of a pre-operational prototype system that will continuously observe the strength and structure of the MOC. An initiative has been formed to fulfill this objective and consists of three interlinked projects:
- A mooring array spanning the Atlantic at 26.5°N to measure the southward branch of the MOC (Hirschi et al., 2003 and Baehr et al., 2004).
- Additional moorings deployed in the western boundary along 26.5°N (by Prof. Bill Johns, University of Miami) to resolve transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (Bryden et al., 2005). These moorings allow surface-to-bottom density profiles along the western boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and eastern boundary to be observed. As a result, the transatlantic pressure gradient can be continuously measured.
- Monitoring of the northward branch of the MOC using submarine telephone cables in the Florida Straits (Baringer et al., 2001) led by Dr Molly Baringer (NOAA/AOML/PHOD).
The entire monitoring array system created by the three projects will be recovered and redeployed annually until 2008 under RAPID funding. From 2008 until 2014 the array will continue to be serviced annually under RAPID-WATCH funding.
The array will be focussed on three regions, the Eastern Boundary (EB), the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Western Boundary (WB). The geographical extent of these regions are as follows:
- Eastern Boundary (EB) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 23.5°N, 25.5°W and the north-west corner at 29.0°N, 12.0°W
- Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 23.0°N, 52.1°W and the north-west corner at 26.5°N, 40.0°W
- Western Boundary (WB) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 26.0°N, 77.5°W and the north-west corner at 27.5°N, 69.5°W
Baehr, J., Hirschi, J., Beismann, J.O. and Marotzke, J. (2004) Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic: A model-based array design study. Journal of Marine Research, Volume 62, No 3, pp 283-312.
Baringer, M.O'N. and Larsen, J.C. (2001) Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27N Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 28, No 16, pp3179-3182
Bryden, H.L., Johns, W.E. and Saunders, P.M. (2005) Deep Western Boundary Current East of Abaco: Mean structure and transport. Journal of Marine Research, Volume 63, No 1, pp 35-57.
Hirschi, J., Baehr, J., Marotzke J., Stark J., Cunningham S.A. and Beismann J.O. (2003) A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 30, No 7, article number 1413 (DOI 10.1029/2002GL016776)
RAPID- Will the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Halt? (RAPID-WATCH)
RAPID-WATCH (2007-2014) is a continuation programme of the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) programme. It aims to deliver a robust and scientifically credible assessment of the risk to the climate of UK and Europe arising from a rapid change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The programme will also assess the need for a long-term observing system that could detect major MOC changes, narrow uncertainty in projections of future change, and possibly be the start of an 'early warning' prediction system.
The effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic MOC is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for the existing collaborations started during RAPID for the observational arrays.
- To deliver a decade-long time series (2004-2014) of calibrated and quality-controlled measurements of the Atlantic MOC from the RAPID-WATCH arrays.
- To exploit the data from the RAPID-WATCH arrays and elsewhere to determine and interpret recent changes in the Atlantic MOC, assess the risk of rapid climate change, and investigate the potential for predictions of the MOC and its impacts on climate.
This work will be carried out in collaboration with the Hadley Centre in the UK and through international partnerships.
The RAPID-WATCH arrays are the existing 26°N MOC observing system array (RAPIDMOC) and the WAVE array that monitors the Deep Western Boundary Current. The data from these arrays will work towards meeting the first scientific objective.
The RAPIDMOC array consists of moorings focused in three geographical regions (sub-arrays) along 26.5° N: Eastern Boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Western Boundary. The Western Boundary sub-array has moorings managed by both the UK and US scientists. The other sub-arrays are solely led by the UK scientists. The lead PI is Dr Stuart Cunningham of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK.
The WAVE array consists of one line of moorings off Halifax, Nova Scotia. The line will be serviced in partnership with the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Halifax, Canada. The lead PI is Dr Chris Hughes of the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Liverpool, UK.
All arrays will be serviced (recovered and redeployed) either on an annual or biennial basis using Research Vessels from the UK, US and Canada.
The second scientific objective will be addressed through numerical modelling studies designed to answer four questions:
- How can we exploit data from the RAPID-WATCH arrays to obtain estimates of the MOC and related variables?
- What do the observations from the RAPID-WATCH arrays and other sources tell us about the nature and causes of recent changes in the Atlantic Ocean?
- What are the implications of RAPID-WATCH array data and other recent observations for estimates of the risk due to rapid change in the MOC?
- Could we use RAPID-WATCH and other observations to help predict future changes in the MOC and climate?
|Principal Scientist(s)||Gerard McCarthy (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
No Fixed Station Information held for the Series
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|