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Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1680881


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Water sample data
Instrument Type
NameCategories
Niskin bottle  discrete water samplers
Instrument Mounting lowered unmanned submersible
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Peter Statham
Originating Organization University of Southampton School of Ocean and Earth Science
Processing Status banked
Online delivery of data Download available - Ocean Data View (ODV) format
Project(s) CROZEX
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier D286_CTD_PIGX_8:15621
BODC Series Reference 1680881
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2005-01-10 18:32
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) -
Nominal Cycle Interval -
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 46.03288 S ( 46° 2.0' S )
Longitude 51.86582 E ( 51° 51.9' E )
Positional Uncertainty Unspecified
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth 6.2 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth 47.1 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height 2212.4 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height 2253.3 m
Sea Floor Depth 2259.5 m
Sea Floor Depth Source -
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Unspecified -
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Unspecified -
Sea Floor Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
 

Parameters

BODC CODERankUnitsTitle
ADEPZZ011MetresDepth (spatial coordinate) relative to water surface in the water body
ALLOHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of alloxanthin {CAS 28380-31-6} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
BOTTFLAG1Not applicableSampling process quality flag (BODC C22)
BUTAHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CHLBHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of chlorophyll-b {chl-b CAS 519-62-0} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CLC2HPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of chlorophyll-c2 {chl-c2} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CLC3HPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of chlorophyll-c3 {chl-c3} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CPHLHPP51Milligrams per cubic metreConcentration of chlorophyll-a {chl-a CAS 479-61-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
DIADHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of diadinoxanthin {CAS 18457-54-0} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
DVCAHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of divinyl chlorophyll-a {DVchl-a} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
FIRSEQID1DimensionlessBottle firing sequence number
FUCXHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of fucoxanthin {CAS 3351-86-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
HEXOHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin {CAS 60147-85-5} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
LUTNHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of lutein {CAS 127-40-2} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
PERIHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of peridinin {CAS 33281-81-1} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
ROSPOSID1DimensionlessBottle rosette position identifier
SAMPRFNM1DimensionlessSample reference number
VILXHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of violaxanthin {CAS 126-29-4} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
ZELUHPP51Nanograms per litreConcentration of zeaxanthin+lutein per unit volume of the water body [particulate >0.2um phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Definition of BOTTFLAG

BOTTFLAGDefinition
0The sampling event occurred without any incident being reported to BODC.
1The filter in an in-situ sampling pump physically ruptured during sample resulting in an unquantifiable loss of sampled material.
2Analytical evidence (e.g. surface water salinity measured on a sample collected at depth) indicates that the water sample has been contaminated by water from depths other than the depths of sampling.
3The feedback indicator on the deck unit reported that the bottle closure command had failed. General Oceanics deck units used on NERC vessels in the 80s and 90s were renowned for reporting misfires when the bottle had been closed. This flag is also suitable for when a trigger command is mistakenly sent to a bottle that has previously been fired.
4During the sampling deployment the bottle was fired in an order other than incrementing rosette position. Indicative of the potential for errors in the assignment of bottle firing depth, especially with General Oceanics rosettes.
5Water was reported to be escaping from the bottle as the rosette was being recovered.
6The bottle seals were observed to be incorrectly seated and the bottle was only part full of water on recovery.
7Either the bottle was found to contain no sample on recovery or there was no bottle fitted to the rosette position fired (but SBE35 record may exist).
8There is reason to doubt the accuracy of the sampling depth associated with the sample.
9The bottle air vent had not been closed prior to deployment giving rise to a risk of sample contamination through leakage.

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

A caution flag has been applied to this series in order to alert users that measurements made during this fieldwork activity may have been affected by the artificial perturbation of the natural environment. An in-situ perturbation experiment (e.g. iron enrichment, nutrient addition, addition of surfactant) is a deliberate large-scale change to one or more environmental factors in order to study its effect on biological or biogeochemical properties of interest. They would typically involve the use of an inert and non-toxic tracer such as SF6 to mark the area treated; sampling would then typically take place using a combination of spatial surveys and lagrangian sampling mode. Whether the sampling station is "IN" or "OUT" of the patch is based on the detectable presence of tracer in the samples. Users are therefore advise to use data from these fieldwork activities with caution.


Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."


Narrative Documents

Niskin Bottle

The Niskin bottle is a device used by oceanographers to collect subsurface seawater samples. It is a plastic bottle with caps and rubber seals at each end and is deployed with the caps held open, allowing free-flushing of the bottle as it moves through the water column.

Standard Niskin

The standard version of the bottle includes a plastic-coated metal spring or elastic cord running through the interior of the bottle that joins the two caps, and the caps are held open against the spring by plastic lanyards. When the bottle reaches the desired depth the lanyards are released by a pressure-actuated switch, command signal or messenger weight and the caps are forced shut and sealed, trapping the seawater sample.

Lever Action Niskin

The Lever Action Niskin Bottle differs from the standard version, in that the caps are held open during deployment by externally mounted stainless steel springs rather than an internal spring or cord. Lever Action Niskins are recommended for applications where a completely clear sample chamber is critical or for use in deep cold water.

Clean Sampling

A modified version of the standard Niskin bottle has been developed for clean sampling. This is teflon-coated and uses a latex cord to close the caps rather than a metal spring. The clean version of the Levered Action Niskin bottle is also teflon-coated and uses epoxy covered springs in place of the stainless steel springs. These bottles are specifically designed to minimise metal contamination when sampling trace metals.

Deployment

Bottles may be deployed singly clamped to a wire or in groups of up to 48 on a rosette. Standard bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 30 L, while Lever Action bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 12 L. Reversing thermometers may be attached to a spring-loaded disk that rotates through 180° on bottle closure.

Phytoplankton pigment measurements from CTD bottle samples collected during CROZEX cruises D285 and D286

Originator's Protocol for Data Acquisition and Analysis

CTD stations were sampled for phytoplankton pigment using a Sea-Bird 911plus CTD mounted on either a titanium or stainless steel sampling frame fitted with 24 Niskin bottles.

The following methods were taken from Seeyave et al. (2007). One litre samples from six optical depths were filtered onto 25 mm Whatman GF/F filters except where phytoplankton biomass was high enough to clog the filter. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) filter samples were stored on-board at -80°C and were analysed at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton on return. Phytoplankton cells captured on the filters were ruptured by sonication for 30 seconds in a Sonics and Materials Inc. Vibracell sonicator. Pigments were extracted in 2-4 ml 90% HPLC grade acetone and coarsely separated from the filters by centrifugation (MSE Mistral 1000). After filtration through a 0.2 mm filter, particulate-free pigments were analysed following the method of Barlow et al. (1997). Different pigments were separated with a 3 mm Hypersil MOS2 C8 column on a Thermo Separations Products HPLC, detected by absorbance at 440 and 665 nm, and identified by retention time and online diode array spectroscopy.

References Cited

Barlow, R.G., Cummings, D.G., Gibb, S.W., 1997. Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC. Marine Ecology Progress Series 161, 303-307.

Seeyave, S., Lucas, M.I., Moore, C.M., Poulton, A.J., 2007. Phytoplankton productivity and community structure in the vicinity of the Crozet Plateau during austral summer 2004/2005. Deep-Sea Research II, 2020-2044.

BODC Data Processing Procedures

The data were provided in one excel file and were loaded into the BODC database using established data banking procedures. Note that no instrumentation detection limits were provided by the originators. The following table shows how the variables were mapped to appropriate BODC parameter codes:

Originator's Parameter Unit Description BODC Parameter Code BODC Unit Comments
Chlorophyll c3 µg l-1 Concentration of chlorophyll-c3 CLC3HPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated chlorophyll c3 mg m-2 Concentration of chlorophyll-c3 and profile integration CLC3INTC mg m-2 -
Chlorophyll c2 µg l-1 Concentration of chlorophyll-c2 CLC2HPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated chlorophyll c2 mg m-2 Concentration of chlorophyll-c2 and profile integration CLC2INTC mg m-2 -
Peridinin µg l-1 Concentration of peridinin PERIHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated peridinin mg m-2 Concentration of peridinin and profile integration PERIINTC mg m-2 -
19'But µg l-1 Concentration of 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin BUTAHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated 19'But mg m-2 Concentration of 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin and profile integration BUTAINTC mg m-2 -
Fucoxanthin µg l-1 Concentration of fucoxanthin FUCXHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated fucoxanthin mg m-2 Concentration of fucoxanthin and profile integration FUCXINTC mg m-2 -
19'Hex µg l-1 Concentration of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin HEXOHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated 19'Hex mg m-2 Concentration of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin and profile integration HEXOINTC mg m-2 -
Prasinoxanthin µg l-1 Concentration of prasinoxanthin PRSXHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated prasinoxanthin mg m-2 Concentration of prasinoxanthin and profile integration PRSXINTC mg m-2 -
Violaxanthin µg l-1 Concentration of violaxanthin VILXHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated violaxanthin mg m-2 Concentration of violaxanthin and profile integration VILXINTC mg m-2 -
Diadinoxanthin µg l-1 Concentration of diadinoxanthin DIADHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated diadinoxanthin mg m-2 Concentration of diadinoxanthin and profile integration DIADINTC mg m-2 -
Alloxanthin µg l-1 Concentration of alloxanthin ALLOHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated alloxanthin mg m-2 Concentration of alloxanthin and profile integration ALLOINTC mg m-2 -
Zeaxanthin µg l-1 Concentration of zeaxanthin ZEOXHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated zeaxanthin and profile integration mg m-2 Concentration of zeaxanthin ZELUINTC mg m-2 -
Lutein µg l-1 Concentration of lutein LUTNHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated lutein mg m-2 Concentration of lutein and profile integration LUTNINTC mg m-2 -
Chlorophyll b µg l-1 Concentration of chlorophyll-b CHLBHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated chlorophyll b mg m-2 Concentration of chlorophyll-b and profile integration CHLBINTC mg m-2 -
Divinyl chlorophyll µg l-1 Concentration of divinyl chlorophyll-a DVCAHPP5 ng l-1 Units converted from µg l-1 to ng l-1 by multiplying by 1000
Integrated divinyl chlorophyll mg m-2 Concentration of divinyl chlorophyll-a and profile integration DVCAINTC mg m-2 -
Chlorophyll a µg l-1 Concentration of chlorophyll-a CPHLHPP5 mg m-3 -
Integrated chlorophyll a mg m-2 Concentration of chlorophyll-a and profile integration CPHLHPP5 mg m-2 -

Data Quality Report

None (BODC assessment).

Problem Report

None (BODC assessment).


Project Information

CROZet natural iron bloom EXport experiment (CROZEX)

The multidisciplinary CROZet natural iron bloom EXport experiment (CROZEX) was a major component of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded core strategic project Biophysical Interactions and Controls over Export Production (BICEP). The project is the first planned natural iron fertilisation experiment to have been conducted in the Southern Ocean.

The overall objective of CROZEX was to examine, from surface to sediment, the structure, causes and consequences of a naturally occurring phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean. The Crozet Plateau was chosen as the study area. This area typically exhibits two phytoplankton blooms a year, a primary bloom in that peaks in October and a secondary bloom in December or January. Specific aims with respect to these were to:

  • Determine what limits the primary bloom
  • Determine the cause of the secondary bloom

The project was run by the George Deacon Division (GDD), now Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems (OBE) at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton (NOCS). Participants from five other university departments also contributed to the project.

The project ran from November 2004 to January 2008 with marine data collection between 3rd November 2004 and 21st January 2005. There were 2 cruises to the Crozet Islands Plateau, which are summarised in Table 1.

Table 1: Details of the RRS Discovery CROZEX cruises.

Cruise No. Dates
D285 3rd November 2004 - 10th December 2004
D286 13th December 2004 - 21st January 2005

The two cruises aimed to survey two areas at different phases of the bloom cycle described above. A control area to the south of the Crozet Islands, which is classified as High Nutrient Low Chorophyll (HNLC), where the blooms do not occur and a second area in the region of the blooms to the north of the Crozet Islands.

Sampling was undertaken at ten major stations (see Pollard et al., 2007) numbered M1 to M10. The following observations/sampling were conducted at each station where possible:

  • Several CTD casts sampling:
    • Iron (using a titanium rig)
    • 234Th
    • Physical parameters (temperature, salinity etc)
    • Oxygen
    • CO2
    • Nutrients using a stainless steel rig including a Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiller (LADCP)
  • At each thorium cast there was an associated Stand Alone Pump System (SAPS) deployment
  • At some stations, a drifting PELAGRA trap was deployed for the duration of the work
  • Megacoring was undertaken at M5 and M6
  • Gravity coring was undertaken at M5, M6 and M10
  • Longhurst Hardy Plankton Recorder (LPHR) tows were undertaken at a few major stations

For each of the major stations (M1 to M10), the following were determined:

  • Primary productivity
  • New Production
  • Phytoplankton community composition
  • Bacterial activity
  • Iron
  • Nutrient drawdown
  • Thorium export

Sampling between major stations included:

  • SeaSoar runs instrumented with:
    • CTD
    • Optical Plankton Counter (OPC)
    • Fast Repetition Rate fluorimeter (FRRf)
  • Physics CTD casts on several lines
  • Argo float deployments
  • Zooplankton nets at nearly every CTD and major station
  • Underway and on-station CO2 measurements
  • Underway nutrients and radium sampling
  • 5 to 6 day ship-board iron-addition incubation experiments
  • Checks against near-real-time satellite and model data
  • Mooring deployments based on the satellite imagery in support of the CROZET (Benthic CROZEX) project.

The CROZEX cruises included 6 extra days in support of the CROZET (Benthic CROZEX) project, whose main cruise took place one year after the CROZEX cruises. The CROZET work undertaken during the CROZEX cruises was primarily the moored sediment trap deployments, although some of the coring work is applicable to both projects.

CROZEX produced significant findings in several disciplines, including confirmation that iron from Crozet fertilised the bloom and that phytoplankton production rates and most export flux estimates were much larger in the bloom area than the HNLC area (Pollard et al. 2007). Many of the project results are presented in a special CROZEX issue of Deep-Sea Research II (volume 54, 2007).

References

Pollard R., Sanders R., Lucas M. and Statham P., 2007. The Crozet natural iron bloom and export experiment (CROZEX). Deep-Sea Research II, 54, 1905-1914.


Data Activity or Cruise Information

Data Activity

Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 2005-01-10
End Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 2005-01-10
Organization Undertaking ActivitySouthampton Oceanography Centre (now National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)
Country of OrganizationUnited Kingdom
Originator's Data Activity IdentifierD286_CTD_15621
Platform Categorylowered unmanned submersible

BODC Sample Metadata Report for D286_CTD_15621

Sample reference number Nominal collection volume(l) Bottle rosette position Bottle firing sequence number Minimum pressure sampled (dbar) Maximum pressure sampled (dbar) Depth of sampling point (m) Bottle type Sample quality flag Bottle reference Comments
174041   10.00 1 1   82.00   83.00   81.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174042   10.00 2 2   81.40   82.40   81.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174043   10.00 3 3   47.00   48.00   47.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174044   10.00 4 4   47.40   48.40   47.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174045   10.00 5 5   32.10   33.10   32.30 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174046   10.00 6 6   31.50   32.50   31.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174047   10.00 7 7   22.30   23.30   22.60 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174048   10.00 8 8   21.50   22.50   21.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174049   10.00 9 9   22.20   23.20   22.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174050   10.00 10 10   21.20   22.20   21.50 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174051   10.00 11 11   22.30   23.30   22.60 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174052   10.00 12 12   21.70   22.70   22.00 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174053   10.00 13 13   21.60   22.60   21.90 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174054   10.00 14 14   21.90   22.90   22.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174055   10.00 15 15   22.00   23.00   22.30 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174056   10.00 16 16   21.70   22.70   22.00 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174057   10.00 17 17   13.30   14.30   13.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174058   10.00 18 18   13.70   14.70   14.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174059   10.00 19 19   13.40   14.40   13.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174060   10.00 20 20   13.50   14.50   13.90 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174061   10.00 21 21    8.90    9.90    9.30 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174062   10.00 22 22    9.30   10.30    9.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174063   10.00 23 23    6.30    7.30    6.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
174064   10.00 24 24    5.80    6.80    6.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    

Please note:the supplied parameters may not have been sampled from all the bottle firings described in the table above. Cross-match the Sample Reference Number above against the SAMPRFNM value in the data file to identify the relevant metadata.

Cruise

Cruise Name D286
Departure Date 2004-12-13
Arrival Date 2005-01-21
Principal Scientist(s)Richard Sanders (Southampton Oceanography Centre)
Ship RRS Discovery

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information


No Fixed Station Information held for the Series


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
B nominal value
Q value below limit of quantification