Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1697769


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Water sample data
Instrument Type
NameCategories
Niskin bottle  discrete water samplers
Instrument Mounting lowered unmanned submersible
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Stuart Gibb
Originating Organization Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Processing Status banked
Online delivery of data Download available - Ocean Data View (ODV) format
Project(s) OMEX II-II
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier CD105B_CTD_PIGX_71:CTD01
BODC Series Reference 1697769
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 1997-06-10 14:45
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) -
Nominal Cycle Interval -
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 42.67413 N ( 42° 40.4' N )
Longitude 9.57714 W ( 9° 34.6' W )
Positional Uncertainty Unspecified
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth 8.9 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth 198.8 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height 612.5 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height 802.4 m
Sea Floor Depth 811.3 m
Sea Floor Depth Source -
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Unspecified -
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Unspecified -
Sea Floor Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
 

Parameters

BODC CODERankUnitsTitle
ABCRHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of beta,epsilon-carotene+beta,beta-carotene {alpha-beta-carotene alpha+beta-carotene} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
ADEPZZ011MetresDepth (spatial coordinate) relative to water surface in the water body
ALLOHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of alloxanthin {CAS 28380-31-6} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
BOTTFLAG1Not applicableSampling process quality flag (BODC C22)
BUTAHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
C1C2HPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of chlorophyll-c1c2 {chl-c1c2} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CHLBHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of chlorophyll-b {chl-b CAS 519-62-0} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CLC3HPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of chlorophyll-c3 {chl-c3} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
CPHLHPP11Milligrams per cubic metreConcentration of chlorophyll-a {chl-a CAS 479-61-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
DIADHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of diadinoxanthin {CAS 18457-54-0} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
DIATHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of diatoxanthin {CAS 31063-73-7} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
DVCAHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of divinyl chlorophyll-a per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
DVCBHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of divinyl chlorophyll-b per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
FUCXHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of fucoxanthin {CAS 3351-86-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
HEXOHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin {CAS 60147-85-5} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
PERIHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of peridinin {CAS 33281-81-1} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
SAMPRFNM1DimensionlessSample reference number
ZEOXHPP11Nanograms per litreConcentration of zeaxanthin {CAS 144-68-3} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >GF/F phase] by filtration, acetone extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Definition of BOTTFLAG

BOTTFLAGDefinition
0The sampling event occurred without any incident being reported to BODC.
1The filter in an in-situ sampling pump physically ruptured during sample resulting in an unquantifiable loss of sampled material.
2Analytical evidence (e.g. surface water salinity measured on a sample collected at depth) indicates that the water sample has been contaminated by water from depths other than the depths of sampling.
3The feedback indicator on the deck unit reported that the bottle closure command had failed. General Oceanics deck units used on NERC vessels in the 80s and 90s were renowned for reporting misfires when the bottle had been closed. This flag is also suitable for when a trigger command is mistakenly sent to a bottle that has previously been fired.
4During the sampling deployment the bottle was fired in an order other than incrementing rosette position. Indicative of the potential for errors in the assignment of bottle firing depth, especially with General Oceanics rosettes.
5Water was reported to be escaping from the bottle as the rosette was being recovered.
6The bottle seals were observed to be incorrectly seated and the bottle was only part full of water on recovery.
7Either the bottle was found to contain no sample on recovery or there was no bottle fitted to the rosette position fired (but SBE35 record may exist).
8There is reason to doubt the accuracy of the sampling depth associated with the sample.
9The bottle air vent had not been closed prior to deployment giving rise to a risk of sample contamination through leakage.

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database


Data Access Policy

Public domain data

These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.

The recommended acknowledgment is

"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."


Narrative Documents

Niskin Bottle

The Niskin bottle is a device used by oceanographers to collect subsurface seawater samples. It is a plastic bottle with caps and rubber seals at each end and is deployed with the caps held open, allowing free-flushing of the bottle as it moves through the water column.

Standard Niskin

The standard version of the bottle includes a plastic-coated metal spring or elastic cord running through the interior of the bottle that joins the two caps, and the caps are held open against the spring by plastic lanyards. When the bottle reaches the desired depth the lanyards are released by a pressure-actuated switch, command signal or messenger weight and the caps are forced shut and sealed, trapping the seawater sample.

Lever Action Niskin

The Lever Action Niskin Bottle differs from the standard version, in that the caps are held open during deployment by externally mounted stainless steel springs rather than an internal spring or cord. Lever Action Niskins are recommended for applications where a completely clear sample chamber is critical or for use in deep cold water.

Clean Sampling

A modified version of the standard Niskin bottle has been developed for clean sampling. This is teflon-coated and uses a latex cord to close the caps rather than a metal spring. The clean version of the Levered Action Niskin bottle is also teflon-coated and uses epoxy covered springs in place of the stainless steel springs. These bottles are specifically designed to minimise metal contamination when sampling trace metals.

Deployment

Bottles may be deployed singly clamped to a wire or in groups of up to 48 on a rosette. Standard bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 30 L, while Lever Action bottles have a capacity between 1.7 and 12 L. Reversing thermometers may be attached to a spring-loaded disk that rotates through 180° on bottle closure.

Pigments for Belgica, Charles Darwin and Poseidon cruises

Document History

Converted from CDROM documentation

Content of data series

ABCRHPP1 Alpha-carotene plus beta-carotene
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
ALLOHPP1 Alloxanthin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
BCARHPP1 Beta-carotene
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
BUTAHPP1 Butanoyloxyfucoxanthin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
C1C2HPP1 Chlorophyll-c1c2
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
CHLBHPP1 Chlorophyll-b
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
CLC3HPP1 Chlorophyll-c3
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
CPHLFLP1 Fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLFLP3 Fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (GF/C filtered)
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLFLP4 Fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extraction (sum of size fractions >0.2 microns)
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLFLP6 Fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extraction (sum of size fractions >GF/F)
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLHPP1 HPLC chlorophyll-a
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLPR01 CTD chlorophyll
Calibrated in-situ fluorometer
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLSSP6 Spectrophotometric chlorophyll-a (Jeffrey and Humphrey trichromatic)
Spectrophotometric assay of acetone extraction (sum of size fractions >GF/F)
Milligrams/cubic metre
CPHLYMP1 Fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Yentsch+Menzel fluorometric assay on acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Milligrams/cubic metre
DIADHPP1 Diadinoxanthin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
DIATHPP1 Diatoxanthin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
DVCAHPP1 Diavinyl chlorophyll-a
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
DVCBHPP1 Diavinyl chlorophyll-b
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
FUCXHPP1 Fucoxanthin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
FVLTAQ01 Chelsea Instruments Aquatracka fluorometer output voltage
Output voltage sampled by analogue to digital converter
Volts
HEXOHPP1 Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
LUTNHPP1 Lutein
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
PBAXHPP1 Phaeophorbide-a
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
PBBXHPP1 Phaeophorbide-b
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
PERIHPP1 Peridinin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
PHAEFLP1 Fluorometric phaeopigments
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Milligrams/cubic metre
PHAEFLP3 Fluorometric phaeopigments
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (GF/C filtered)
Milligrams/cubic metre
PTAXHPP1 Phaeophytin-a
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
PYPTHPP1 Pyrophaeophytin-a
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
SCHLFLPA Size-fractionated fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (>5 micron size fraction)
Milligrams/cubic metre
SCHLFLPC Size-fractionated fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (2-5 micron size fraction)
Milligrams/cubic metre
SCHLFLPF Size-fractionated fluorometric chlorophyll-a
Fluorometric assay of acetone extract (0.2-2 micron size fraction)
Milligrams/cubic metre
SCHLSSPA Size-fractionated fluorometric chlorophyll-a (Jeffrey and Humphrey trichromatic)
Spectrophotometric assay of acetone extraction (>5 micron size fraction)
Milligrams/cubic metre
SCHLSSPC Size-fractionated fluorometric chlorophyll-a (Jeffrey and Humphrey trichromatic)
Spectrophotometric assay of acetone extraction (2-5 micron size fraction)
Milligrams/cubic metre
SCHLSSPN Size-fractionated fluorometric chlorophyll-a (Jeffrey and Humphrey trichromatic)
Spectrophotometric assay of acetone extraction (GF/F-2 micron size fraction)
Milligrams/cubic metre
VILXHPP1 Violaxentin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre
ZEOXHPP1 Zeoxantin
HPLC assay of acetone extract (GF/F filtered)
Nanograms per litre

Data Originator

Dr Stuart Gibb, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK.

Sampling strategy and methodology

Cruises: Belgica BG9714B, BG9815C, BG9919B and BG9919C, Charles Darwin CD110A, CD110B, CD114A and CD114B and Poseidon PS237_1.

Water samples were either collected from water bottles deployed on a CTD rosette or taken from a continuous surface seawater supply.

1-2 litres of water were filtered through a 25mm GF/F filter, flash frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen until analysed either on board or back in the laboratory.

Pigment concentrations were determined by reverse phase HPLC following the protocols described in Barlow et al. (1993a). Frozen filters were extracted in 90% acetone, sonicated and centrifuged to remove debris. An aliquot (300 µl) of clarified extract was mixed with an equal volume of 1M ammonium acetate and 100 µl of this mixture was injected into a Shimazdu HPLC system incorporating a 3 micron C18 Pecosphere column (3.3 x 0.45 cm, Perkin Elmer) heated to 30 °C.

Pigments were separated by a linear binary gradient changing from 0% B to 100% B over 10 minutes, followed by an isocratic hold at 100% B for 7.5 minutes, at a flow rate of 1 ml per minute. Solvent A consisted of 80:20 (v/v) MeOH : ammonium acetate. Solvent B contained 60:40 (v/v) MeOH : acetone.

Chlorophylls and carotenoids were detected by absorbance at 440nm and phaeopigments by fluorescence detection at 405nm excitation, 670nm emission. Data collection and integration was performed with the Philips PU6000 chromatography software. Diavynyl chlorophyll-a was determined on some samples using a C8 column as described by Barlow et al. (1996).

Pigments were identified and calibrated by comparison with retention times of pigments isolated from well-documented microalgal species in the Plymouth Culture Collection and with standards obtained from the Water Quality Institute, Denmark. Peak identity was further confirmed on selected samples by on-line diode array visible spectroscopy. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b were calibrated using authentic standards (Sigma Chemical Co.) in acetone and quantified spectrophotometrically using the extinction coefficients of Jeffrey and Humphrey (1975). Diavynyl chlorophyll-a standard was obtained from R. Bidigare, University of Hawaii. Phaeopigment concentrations were estimated from peak areas and calibrations performed by simultaneous absorbance (667nm) and fluorescence detection of phaeopigments extracted from copepod and mussel faeces as detailed by Barlow et al. (1993b).

All pigments were supplied in units of ng/l. Chlorophyll-a values were converted to mg/m3 by dividing by 1000 to unify units for this parameter in the database.

Comments on data quality

The HPLC analyst reported that for BG9919 fucoxanthin may contain phaeophorbides and the chlorophyll-a data loaded were the sum of chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-a allomer.

References

Barlow, R.G., Mantoura, R.F.C., Gough, M.A. and Fileman, T.W., 1993a. Pigment signatures of the phytoplankton composition in the north-east Atlantic during the 1990 spring bloom. Deep Sea Res. II, 40, 459-477.

Barlow, R.G., Mantoura, R.F.C., Gough, M.A. and Fileman, T.W., 1993b. Phaeopigment distribution during the 1990 spring bloom in the north-east Atlantic. Deep Sea Res. I, 40, 2229-2242.

Barlow, R.G., Cummings, D.G., Mantoura, R.F.C. and Fileman, T.W., 1996. Pigment chemotaxonomic distributions of phytoplankton during summer in the western Mediterranean. Deep Sea Res. II, in press.

Jeffrey, S.W. and Humphrey, G.F., 1975. New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophylls a, b, c1 and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton. Biochem. Physiol. Pflan., 167, 191-194.

Lorenzen, C.J., 1967. Determination of chlorophyll and phaeopigments: spectrophotometric equations. Limnology and Oceanography, 12.

Tahey, T.M., Duineveld, G.C.A., Berghuis, E.M. and Helder, W., 1994. Relation between sediment-water fluxes of oxygen and silicate and faunal abundance at continental shelf, slope and deep-water stations in the North West Mediterranean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 104, 119-130.

Thomsen. L., Graf, G., Martens, V. and Steen, E., 1994. An instrument for sampling water from the bottom nepheloid layer. Contin. Shelf Res., 14, 871-882.

Thomsen, L. and Graf, G., 1995. Benthic boundary layer characteristics of the continental margin of the western Barents Sea. Oceanologica Acta, 17/6, 597-607.

Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W., Mantoura, R.F.C., Llewellyn, C.A., Bjornland, T., Repeta, D. and Welschmeyer, N., 1991. Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 77, 183-196.

Yentsch, C.S. and Menzel, D.W., 1963. A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and phaeophytin by fluoresence. Deep-Sea Res., 10, 221-231.


Project Information

Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) II - II

Introduction

OMEX was a European multidisciplinary oceanographic research project that studied and quantified the exchange processes of carbon and associated elements between the continental shelf of western Europe and the open Atlantic Ocean. The project ran in two phases known as OMEX I (1993-1996) and OMEX II - II (1997-2000), with a bridging phase OMEX II - I (1996-1997). The project was supported by the European Union under the second and third phases of its MArine Science and Technology Programme (MAST) through contracts MAS2-CT93-0069 and MAS3-CT97-0076. It was led by Professor Roland Wollast from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium and involved more than 100 scientists from 10 European countries.

Scientific Objectives

The aim of the Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) project was to gain a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the ocean margins in order to quantify fluxes of energy and matter (carbon, nutrients and other trace elements) across this boundary. The research culminated in the development of quantitative budgets for the areas studied using an approach based on both field measurements and modeling.

OMEX II - II (1997-2000)

The second phase of OMEX concentrated exclusively on the Iberian Margin, although RV Belgica did make some measurements on La Chapelle Bank whilst on passage to Zeebrugge. This is a narrow-shelf environment, which contrasts sharply with the broad shelf adjacent to the Goban Spur. This phase of the project was also strongly multidisciplinary in approach, covering physics, chemistry, biology and geology.

There were a total of 33 OMEX II - II research cruises, plus 23 CPR tows, most of which were instrumented. Some of these cruises took place before the official project start date of June 1997.

Data Availability

Field data collected during OMEX II - II have been published by BODC as a CD-ROM product, entitled:

Further descriptions of this product and order forms may be found on the BODC web site.

The data are also held in BODC's databases and subsets may be obtained by request from BODC.


Data Activity or Cruise Information

Data Activity

Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 1997-06-10
End Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 1997-06-10
Organization Undertaking ActivityProudman Oceanographic Laboratory (now National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool)
Country of OrganizationUnited Kingdom
Originator's Data Activity IdentifierCD105B_CTD_CTD01
Platform Categorylowered unmanned submersible

BODC Sample Metadata Report for CD105B_CTD_CTD01

Sample reference number Nominal collection volume(l) Bottle rosette position Bottle firing sequence number Minimum pressure sampled (dbar) Maximum pressure sampled (dbar) Depth of sampling point (m) Bottle type Sample quality flag Bottle reference Comments
561844   10.00      748.30  750.50  739.90 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561845   10.00      661.10  664.30  654.20 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561846   10.00      202.00  203.50  198.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561847   10.00      120.50  122.30  118.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561848   10.00      100.60  101.80   98.10 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561849   10.00       69.30   71.90   67.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561850   10.00       49.50   52.40   48.30 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561851   10.00       40.70   41.90   38.70 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561852   10.00       30.40   32.20   28.80 Niskin bottle No problem reported    
561853   10.00       10.20   12.30    8.90 Niskin bottle No problem reported    

Please note:the supplied parameters may not have been sampled from all the bottle firings described in the table above. Cross-match the Sample Reference Number above against the SAMPRFNM value in the data file to identify the relevant metadata.

Cruise

Cruise Name CD105B
Departure Date 1997-06-10
Arrival Date 1997-06-23
Principal Scientist(s)John Huthnance (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory)
Ship RRS Charles Darwin

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information


No Fixed Station Information held for the Series


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
Q value below limit of quantification