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Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 883453


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category CTD or STD cast
Instrument Type
NameCategories
Sea-Bird SBE 911plus CTD  CTD; water temperature sensor; salinity sensor
Instrument Mounting research vessel
Originating Country Belgium
Originator Prof Roland Wollast
Originating Organization Free University of Brussels, Laboratory of Chemical Oceanography and Water Geochemistry
Processing Status banked
Online delivery of data Download available - Ocean Data View (ODV) format
Project(s) OMEX I
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier GC10F
BODC Series Reference 883453
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 1993-04-22 09:35
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) -
Nominal Cycle Interval 2.0 decibars
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 47.41300 N ( 47° 24.8' N )
Longitude 7.26700 W ( 7° 16.0' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.0 to 0.01 n.miles
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth 0.99 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth 601.06 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height 1298.94 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height 1899.01 m
Sea Floor Depth 1900.0 m
Sea Floor Depth Source -
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Variable common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth, but this depth varies significantly during the series
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
Sea Floor Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
 

Parameters

BODC CODERankUnitsTitle
DOXYPR011Micromoles per litreConcentration of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by in-situ Beckmann probe
OXYSBB011PercentSaturation of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} in the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by in-situ Beckmann probe and computation from concentration using Benson and Krause algorithm
POTMCV011Degrees CelsiusPotential temperature of the water body by computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm
PRESPR011DecibarsPressure (spatial coordinate) exerted by the water body by profiling pressure sensor and correction to read zero at sea level
PSALST011DimensionlessPractical salinity of the water body by CTD and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm
SIGTPR011Kilograms per cubic metreSigma-theta of the water body by CTD and computation from salinity and potential temperature using UNESCO algorithm
TEMPST011Degrees CelsiusTemperature of the water body by CTD or STD

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database


Data Access Policy

Public domain data

These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.

The recommended acknowledgment is

"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."


Narrative Documents

Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers

The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.

Underwater unit

The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.

Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors

The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.

The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.

Additional sensors

Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.

Deck unit or SEARAM

Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.

Specifications

Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:

Parameter Range Initial accuracy Resolution at 24 Hz Response time
Temperature -5 to 35°C 0.001°C 0.0002°C 0.065 sec
Conductivity 0 to 7 S m-1 0.0003 S m-1 0.00004 S m-1 0.065 sec (pumped)
Pressure 0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m) 0.015% of full scale 0.001% of full scale 0.015 sec

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

RV Belgica 9309 CTD Data Documentation

Instrumentation

The CTD profiles were taken with a SeaBird SBE9S CTD system. The instrument has enclosed conductivity and temperature sensors supplied with water by a pump. The water inlet is at the base of the bottle rosette. When not in use, the sensors were bathed in MilliQ water. SeaBird temperature sensors are high performance, pressure protected thermistors. A non-pulsed membrane dissolved oxygen sensor was also included on the rig.

The CTD was periodically sent for calibration to SeaBird's NWRCC facility in Washington State. An average of 4 salinity samples were taken per cast, stored in crown-corked beer bottles, and determined on Beckman salinometer using OSI standard seawater. The procedure has come out well in ICES intercalibration exercises. Nevertheless, the salinometer is not considered as accurate as the SeaBird CTD. Consequently, the bottle data were used as a check for instrument malfunction but not for recalibration. Similarly, the performance of the temperature sensor was monitored against digital reversing thermometers but not recalibrated.

Dissolved oxygen performance was monitored against Winkler titration, done by MUMM or University of Liege, and recalibrated by polynomial, usually linear, if required.

A SeaBird rosette sampler fitted with 12, 10 litre Niskin or Go-Flo bottles was mounted around the CTD cage. The bases of the bottles were level with the pressure sensor with their tops 0.8 m above it. Digital thermometers on water bottles were placed 0.63 m above the CTD temperature sensor.

Note that an SBE19 SeaCat backup system was carried on this cruise and used for three profiles. However, the data from these are poor quality and have not been included in the data set.

Data Acquisition

The CTD sampled at 24Hz but this was automatically reduced to 2Hz by the deck unit. The data were logged on a PC using SeaBird's SEASAVE program.

The CTD was lowered at 0.8-1 m/s. On the upcast, the hauling rate is approximately the same, but was reduced on approach to a bottle firing depth to minimise wake interference.

Post-Cruise Processing

The SeaBird DATCNV program was used for the conversion from raw binary data into calibrated data in ASCII format that were supplied to BODC.

Reformatting

The data were converted into the BODC internal format to allow the use of in-house software tools, notably the workstation graphics editor. In addition to reformatting, the transfer program applied the following modifications to the data:

Time was converted from Belgian local time to GMT.

Temperature has been converted from ITS68 to ITS90 by dividing the values by 1.00024.

Dissolved oxygen was converted from µmol/kg to µM by multiplying the values by:

(1000 + sigma-theta)/1000.0.

Both depth and pressure channels were included in the original data. Pressure was taken as the independent variable to provide consistency with other OMEX data sets.

Editing

The reformatted CTD data were transferred onto a high speed graphics workstation and the downcasts inspected using an in-house interactive graphical editor. The downcasts were topped/tailed and any obvious spikes were manually flagged 'suspect'. In this way quality control was achieved with none of the original data values edited or deleted.

Once screened on the workstation, the CTD downcasts (41) were loaded into a database under the Oracle relational database management system and then migrated to the National Oceanographic Database.

Calibration

The pressures, temperatures and salinities supplied are believed to be accurate.

MUMM reported that the dissolved oxygen data showed reasonable agreement with the bottle data set from University of Liege. However, for the sake of internal consistency, the dissolved oxygen sensor performance was calibrated against 26 water bottle samples analysed following the classical Winkler titration procedure.

The calibration equation obtained was:

Ocorrected = Oobserved * 1.03 + 4.24 (R2 = 0.98)

and this has been applied to the data.

Data Reduction

Once all screening and calibration procedures were completed, the data set was binned to 2db (casts deeper than 100db) or 1db (casts shallower than 100db). Downcast values corresponding to the bottle firing depths were incorporated into the database. Oxygen saturations have been computed using the algorithm of Benson and Krause (1984).

References

Benson, B.B., Krause D. (1984). The concentration and isotopic fractionation of oxygen dissolved in fresh water and sea water in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Limnol.Oceanogr. 29 pp.620-632.


Project Information

Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) I

Introduction

OMEX was a European multidisciplinary oceanographic research project that studied and quantified the exchange processes of carbon and associated elements between the continental shelf of western Europe and the open Atlantic Ocean. The project ran in two phases known as OMEX I (1993-1996) and OMEX II - II (1997-2000), with a bridging phase OMEX II - I (1996-1997). The project was supported by the European Union under the second and third phases of its MArine Science and Technology Programme (MAST) through contracts MAS2-CT93-0069 and MAS3-CT97-0076. It was led by Professor Roland Wollast from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium and involved more than 100 scientists from 10 European countries.

Scientific Objectives

The aim of the Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) project was to gain a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the ocean margins in order to quantify fluxes of energy and matter (carbon, nutrients and other trace elements) across this boundary. The research culminated in the development of quantitative budgets for the areas studied using an approach based on both field measurements and modeling.

OMEX I (1993-1996)

The first phase of OMEX was divided into sub-projects by discipline:

  • Physics
  • Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Biological Processes
  • Benthic Processes
  • Carbon Cycling and Biogases

This emphasises the multidisciplinary nature of the research.

The project fieldwork focussed on the region of the European Margin adjacent to the Goban Spur (off the coast of Brittany) and the shelf break off Tromsø, Norway. However, there was also data collected off the Iberian Margin and to the west of Ireland. In all a total of 57 research cruises (excluding 295 Continuous Plankton Recorder tows) were involved in the collection of OMEX I data.

Data Availability

Field data collected during OMEX I have been published by BODC as a CD-ROM product, entitled:

  • OMEX I Project Data Set (two discs)

Further descriptions of this product and order forms may be found on the BODC web site.

The data are also held in BODC's databases and subsets may be obtained by request from BODC.


Data Activity or Cruise Information

Cruise

Cruise Name BG9309
Departure Date 1993-04-19
Arrival Date 1993-05-06
Principal Scientist(s)Roland Wollast (Free University of Brussels, Laboratory of Chemical Oceanography and Water Geochemistry)
Ship RV Belgica

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information


No Fixed Station Information held for the Series


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
Q value below limit of quantification