Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 914890
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Public domain data
These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.
The recommended acknowledgment is
"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."
Sea Bird Electronics SBE13 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
The SBE 13 was designed as an auxiliary sensor for Sea Bird SBE 9plus, but can fitted in custom instrumentation applications. When used with the SBE 9 Underwater Unit, a flow-through plenum improves the data quality, as the pumping water over the sensor membrane reduces the errors caused by oxygen depletion during the periods of slow or intermittent flushing and also reduces exposure to biofouling.
The output voltage is proportional to membrane current (oxygen current) and to the sensor element's membrane temperature (oxygen temperature), which is used for internal temperature compensation.
Two versions of the SBE 13 are available: the SBE 13Y uses a YSI polarographic element with replaceable membranes to provide in situ measurements up to 2000 m depth and the SBE 13B uses a Beckman polarographic element to provide in situ measurements up to 10500 m depth, depending on the sensor casing. This sensor includes a replaceable sealed electrolyte membrane cartridge.
The SBE 13 instrument has been out of production since 2001 and has been superseded by the SBE 43.
|Measurement range||0 to 15 mL L-1|
|Accuracy||0.1 mL L-1|
|Time response|| |
2 s at 25°C
5 s at 0°C
|Depth range|| |
2000 m (SBE 13Y- housing in anodized aluminum)
6800 m (SBE 13B- housing in anodized aluminum)
105000 m (SBE 13B- housing in titanium)
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.
Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers
The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.
The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.
Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors
The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.
The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.
Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.
Deck unit or SEARAM
Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.
Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:
|Parameter||Range||Initial accuracy||Resolution at 24 Hz||Response time|
|Temperature||-5 to 35°C||0.001°C||0.0002°C||0.065 sec|
|Conductivity||0 to 7 S m-1||0.0003 S m-1||0.00004 S m-1||0.065 sec (pumped)|
|Pressure||0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m)||0.015% of full scale||0.001% of full scale||0.015 sec|
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.
The Chelsea Instruments Aquatracka is a logarithmic response fluorometer. It uses a pulsed (5.5 Hz) xenon light source discharging between 320 and 800 nm through a blue filter with a peak transmission of 420 nm and a bandwidth at half maximum of 100 nm. A red filter with sharp cut off, 10% transmission at 664 nm and 678 nm, is used to pass chlorophyll-a fluorescence to the sample photodiode.
The instrument may be deployed either in a through-flow tank, on a CTD frame or moored with a data logging package.
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.
The transmissometer is designed to accurately measure the the amount of light transmitted by a modulated Light Emitting Diode (LED) through a fixed-length in-situ water column to a synchronous detector.
- Water path length: 5 cm (for use in turbid waters) to 1 m (for use in clear ocean waters).
- Beam diameter: 15 mm
- Transmitted beam collimation: <3 milliradians
- Receiver acceptance angle (in water): <18 milliradians
- Light source wavelength: usually (but not exclusively) 660 nm (red light)
The instrument can be interfaced to Aanderaa RCM7 current meters. This is achieved by fitting the transmissometer in a slot cut into a customized RCM4-type vane.
A red LED (660 nm) is used for general applications looking at water column sediment load. However, green or blue LEDs can be fitted for specilised optics applications. The light source used is identified by the BODC parameter code.
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's Manual.
RV Pelagia 93 CTD Data Documentation
Instrumentation and Shipboard Protocols
The CTD profiles were taken with the SeaBird SBE9 system fitted with a 25 cm path length red light SeaTech transmissometer, a Chelsea Instruments Aquatracka fluorometer and an oxygen membrane of the Beckman (non-pulsed) type.
A rosette sampler fitted with 22, 12 litre NOEX bottles was mounted with the bottles forming a ring around the CTD cage. The bases of the bottles were approximately 0.5 m below the pressure sensor with their tops about 0.5 m above it. Digital thermometers on water bottles were placed 0.3 m above the CTD temperature sensor. Salinity samples were collected from 2-3 bottles on most deep casts (water depth in excess of 1000 m).
Operational procedure was to lower the CTD continuously to the bottom and then raise it in increments, firing the water bottles at the required depths.
The data were logged on a PC using the SeaBird data acquisition software.
The SeaBird DATCNV program was used for the conversion from binary raw data files to ASCII format in engineering units (PSU, °C, etc.). The data were then passed to Dr. Hendrik van Aken's group at NIOZ who worked up the temperature, salinity and oxygen channels. Details of the procedures used are not known but this group are associated with the collection of WOCE data and there is every reason to believe that the work was done to a very high standard.
The processed data were supplied to BODC.
The data as supplied had been binned to 1db with temperature (ITS90), practical salinity, chlorophyll (expressed as µg/l), oxygen (µmol/kg) and attenuance (per m).
The data were converted into the BODC internal format (PXF) to allow the use of in-house software tools, notably the workstation graphics editor. In addition to reformatting, the transfer program applied the following modifications to the data:
Dissolved oxygen was converted from µmol/kg to µM by multiplying the values by (1000+sigma-theta)/1000.
The chlorophyll was converted back to a voltage by applying a natural log transform to conform to the requirements of the BODC CTD data handling system. On retrieval, the data as supplied are reproduced.
Using custom in-house graphics editors, the limits of the downcast were manually flagged. Any obvious spikes identified were manually flagged 'suspect'. The data from this cruise were very clean and the only flagging required were some near-surface oxygen data where the sensor had obviously not equilibrated.
Once screened on the workstation, the CTD downcasts (between the flagged limits) were loaded into a database under the Oracle relational database management system.
The salinity and temperature data had been calibrated prior to submission to BODC. The only additional check was a comparison of the salinity/potential temperature plot for a deep cast off the Goban Spur with other OMEX data known to be of good quality. The agreement was excellent.
On screening the oxygen data it was noticed that one cast (CP1) showed a significant offset in oxygen saturation from the rest of the data. This prompted a check of the CTD oxygen data against bottle data obtained following the Winkler titration protocols similar to those described in Carpenter (1965).
The results showed good agreement for all casts except CP1. The following recalibration was obtained for this cast and has been applied to the data:
|O2 corrected = (0.456 * O2 observed) + 156|
No additional calibration was applied to the other casts.
During screening it was observed that significant deviations, in the form of a smooth peak, were present in the oxygen profiles at the depth of the thermocline. No attempt was made to flag these data but users should be aware that this feature may be an artefact.
The attenuance values were higher than expected (0.5-0.6) at clear water depths. This was corrected in Oracle by normalising the clear water data (away from the surface and from the bottom and avoiding any mid-water nepheloid features) to the expected value for the clear water minimum (0.35) in the Goban Spur area. The correction has been applied as follows:
No extracted chlorophyll data were available for this cruise and consequently the data presented are the result of a nominal calibration. More heed should therefore be paid to the relative, rather than absolute, chlorophyll values.
Once all screening and calibration procedures were completed, the data set was binned to 2 db (casts deeper than 100 db) or 1 db (casts shallower than 100 db). The binning algorithm excluded any data points flagged suspect and attempted linear interpolation over gaps up to 3 bins wide. If any gaps larger than this were encountered, the data in the gaps were set null.
Downcast values corresponding to the bottle firing depths were incorporated into the database. Oxygen saturations have been computed using the algorithm of Benson and Krause (1984).
Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) I
OMEX was a European multidisciplinary oceanographic research project that studied and quantified the exchange processes of carbon and associated elements between the continental shelf of western Europe and the open Atlantic Ocean. The project ran in two phases known as OMEX I (1993-1996) and OMEX II - II (1997-2000), with a bridging phase OMEX II - I (1996-1997). The project was supported by the European Union under the second and third phases of its MArine Science and Technology Programme (MAST) through contracts MAS2-CT93-0069 and MAS3-CT97-0076. It was led by Professor Roland Wollast from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium and involved more than 100 scientists from 10 European countries.
The aim of the Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) project was to gain a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the ocean margins in order to quantify fluxes of energy and matter (carbon, nutrients and other trace elements) across this boundary. The research culminated in the development of quantitative budgets for the areas studied using an approach based on both field measurements and modeling.
OMEX I (1993-1996)
The first phase of OMEX was divided into sub-projects by discipline:
- Biogeochemical Cycles
- Biological Processes
- Benthic Processes
- Carbon Cycling and Biogases
This emphasises the multidisciplinary nature of the research.
The project fieldwork focussed on the region of the European Margin adjacent to the Goban Spur (off the coast of Brittany) and the shelf break off Tromsø, Norway. However, there was also data collected off the Iberian Margin and to the west of Ireland. In all a total of 57 research cruises (excluding 295 Continuous Plankton Recorder tows) were involved in the collection of OMEX I data.
Field data collected during OMEX I have been published by BODC as a CD-ROM product, entitled:
- OMEX I Project Data Set (two discs)
Further descriptions of this product and order forms may be found on the BODC web site.
The data are also held in BODC's databases and subsets may be obtained by request from BODC.
|Principal Scientist(s)||Wim Helder (Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
No Fixed Station Information held for the Series
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|