Cruise inventory

RV Southern Surveyor SS01/10 (GPpr02, PINTS)

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RV Southern Surveyor (09SS)
Cruise identifierSS01/10 (GPpr02, PINTS)
Cruise period2010-01-23 — 2010-02-15
StatusCompleted
Port of departureSydney, Australia
Port of returnHobart, Australia
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesScientific Objectives

The main hypothesis of this project is that iron and other micronutrients are critical drivers of primary production in the Tasman Sea. In turn, the scale of primary production is instrumental in determining the biological uptake of CO2 and fixation of carbon in surface waters.
Specific objectives with name of PIs involved in brackets:

1.Conduct zonal and meridional transects traversing the Tasman Sea to gain an understanding of the transport mechanisms influencing dust supply and its importance: a) as a source of iron and b) to link iron supply to nitrogen cycling in northern and southern waters (Bowie, Butler, Law, Ellwood);
2.Test iron-dependent bioreporter(s) as tools to measure iron bioavailability in the Tasman Sea (Hassler);
3.Characterise the iron biogeochemical cycling, chemical speciation, sources and potential control on primary productivity in the Tasman Sea (Law, Ellwood, Hassler, Doblin, Bowie);
4.Evaluate macronutrient limitation (e.g., nitrogen) of primary production and strategies to circumvent it (e.g., nitrogen fixation) (Law, Ellwood);
5.Investigate the role of other micronutrients in primary production and species composition. For example, the effect molybdenum and copper availability has on nitrogen-fixation by investigating the distribution of molybdenum and copper isotopes in the natural plankton community north and south of the Tasman Front (Butler, Ellwood, Bowie, Hassler, Doblin);
6.Undertake plankton incubation experiments to look at the influence of pCO2 or sources (e.g. Dust and organic matter) on nutrient uptake (Law, Ellwood, Hassler).

Voyage Narrative

Except when we left Garden Island (Sydney) on the 23rd of January, the weather was exceptionally calm for the Tasman Sea. This allowed us to successfully deploy light equipment (trace-metal-clean rosette from the ANU and McLa
Chief scientistChristel Hassler (University of Technology Sydney Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster)
ProjectPINTS (Primary Productivity induced by Nitrogen and Iron in the Tasman Sea)
Cruise reportRV Southern Surveyor SS01/10 (GPpr02, PINTS) cruise report southernsurveyor01_2010.pdf — access key 'C' (2.57 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralTasman Sea
SpecificTasman Sea
Track chartsRV Southern Surveyor SS01/10 (GPpr02, PINTS) cruise track — southernsurveyor01_2010trk.pdf (0.10 MB) 
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 110
Description: Temperature, measurement at the top and bottom of each CTD
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of deployments = 30
Description: LADCP deployment to measure in-situ currents.
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 115
Description: Salinity and dissolved oxygen done to calibrate the sensor of the seabird 911, 2-3 sample per cast (depending on depth of CTD)
Other dissolved gasesQuantity: number of stations = 900
Description: Nutrients (NOx, Si and PO4) associated with CTD deployment and incubation experiments done at Process stations.
PhosphateQuantity: number of stations = 900
Description: Nutrients (NOx, Si and PO4) associated with CTD deployment and incubation experiments done at Process stations.
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 300
Description: Nutrients (NO3, NO2, NH4) at low level from CTD (upper 75m from Stn 1 to Stn13) and incubation experiments done at Process stations. These need further analysis by flow injection and will complement analysis that were below detection limit from the MNF Hydrochemists
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 300
Description: Nutrients (NO3, NO2, NH4) at low level from CTD (upper 75m from Stn 1 to Stn13) and incubation experiments done at Process stations. These need further analysis by flow injection and will complement analysis that were below detection limit from the MNF Hydrochemists
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 300
Description: Nutrients (NO3, NO2, NH4) at low level from CTD (upper 75m from Stn 1 to Stn13) and incubation experiments done at Process stations. These need further analysis by flow injection and will complement analysis that were below detection limit from the MNF Hydrochemists
SilicateQuantity: number of stations = 900
Description: Nutrients (NOx, Si and PO4) associated with CTD deployment and incubation experiments done at Process stations.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 48
Description: Sample collected from the trace-metal-clean rosette- for a GEOTRACES intercalibration exercise in the determination of trace elements using various techniques.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 150
Description: Samples collected from the trace-metal-clean rosette and incubation experiments done at process stations for Fe chemical speciation. Sample will be analysed using electrochemical techniques.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 220
Description: Samples collected using the trace-metal-clean rosette for Zn and Cu chemical speciation. Sample will be analysed using electrochemical techniques.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 300
Description: Samples collected for total dissolved trace metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) from the trace-metal-clean rosette. Sample will be analysed using ICP-MS.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 300
Description: Sample collected for total dissolved iron from the trace metal rosette. These samples will be analysed in the lab using flow injection technique.
IsotopesQuantity: number of samples = 10
Description: Sample collected with the trace-metal-clean rosette for Fe and Cu isotopic signature. Sample will require further analysis using MC-ICP-MS technique.
IsotopesQuantity: number of samples = 300
Description: N isotopic composition. These samples will require further analysis.
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of stations = 15
Description: Fe:C ratio at process stations and associated with incubation experiments listed on 28.
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of measurements = 100
Description: Measurement of iron size fractionation (soluble and colloidal) using 55 Fe incubation at process stations.
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of samples = 80
Description: Sample collected from the trace-metal-clean rosette for dissolved Zn and Zn chemical speciation. These samples will require further analysis using flow injection and electrochemical techniques.
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of measurements = 200
Description: Measurement of the effect of organic ligands, atmospheric dust and Cu and Zn on iron bioavailability to natural phytoplankton. Measurement of the Fe internalisation rate constant for natural phytoplankton using 55Fe incubation on-board. These measurements required further analysis (pigments and dissolved iron).
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of samples = 50
Description: Samples collected from the trace-metal-clean rosette for Fe bioavailability measurement using either phytoplankton culture representative of the Tasman Sea or the iron-bioreporter. These analyses will require further work in the lab.
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of stations = 100
Description: Biological nitrogen fixation rate in surface water sampled with CTD (top 75m), and in incubation experiments at Process stations. Measured by incorporation of isotopically-labelled dinitrogen into particulate organic nitrogen. Samples collected for land-based Mass Spectrometry analysis further.
Biology and fisheries 
Primary productivityQuantity: number of stations = 20
Description: Measurement of primary productivity using 14C incorporation at 18 different light levels, done at sea. Primary productivity was measured at the process stations (full water column P vs I) and in association with incubation experiments done at process station (pCO2 and dust experiments). These would require further analysis: the analysis of pigments (see below) and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration.
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of stations = 10
Description: In situ measurement at each process station of dark adapted fluorescence yield. Dual measurements using blue and red excitation will yield an estimate of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic efficiency as well as the photosynthetic efficiency of the total phytoplankton community.
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of samples = 400
Description: Measurement of pigments and Chl a using HPLC technique back in the laboratory. These will be use to infer the biomass and the composition of the phytoplankton community. These sample were collected from the CTD deployment (top 100m) and incubation experiments done at process stations.
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of samples = 40
Description: Samples collected from the McLane pumps for the determination of particulate metals, carbon, nitrogen and biogenic silicate. These sample will require further analysis using ICP-MS techniques
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of samples = 20
Description: Particulate carbon and nitrate present at a depth of 15m from the CTD deployment and incubation experiments done at Process stations. Samples collected for land-based Mass Spectrometry analysis.
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of measurements = 40
Description: Measurement of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. These will require further analysis. These samples were collected from the CTD at a depth of 15 m and Chl a max.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 350
Description: Sample for the determination of picoplankton abundance using flow cytometry. These samples require further analysis. Sample were taken from the top 100m at CTD deployment and from incubation experiments done at Process stations.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of experiments = 3
Description: Incubation experiments investigating the effect of atmospheric dust, variable pCO2 and increase temperature (4oC) on phytoplankton biomass, productivity, Fe: C ratio, Fe chemistry and nitrogen fixation.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of stations = 20
Description: Identification, counts and morphological measurement of coccolithophores present in the top 30 m from CTD deployment. Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of stations = 150
Description: Samples were collected from CTD deployments and fixed in alkaline Lugols solution to determine dominant phytoplankton groups using microscope enumeration. These samples will serve to complement pigment data.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of experiments = 2
Description: Incubation experiments investigating the effect of inorganic and organic iron enrichment (incl. atmospheric dust) on phytoplankton, biomass, biodiversity, productivity and iron chemistry.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of measurements = 400
Description: Measurement done at sea from the top 100 m for each CTD and for incubation experiments done at Process stations. These relate to photosynthetic health of the phytoplankton community and are used to infer nutrient limitation. These samples were analysed with the FRRF and the Water-PAM on board.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of measurements = 20
Description: Measurement of particulate absorption (chlorophyll a specific optical absorption coefficient) and a*PSII (fraction of light absorbed by PSII) using spectrophotometric approach. Pigment analyses and in-situ PAR estimates will be required to derive carbon flux. The measurements were done to compare primary productivity using the conventional 14 C approach (see above).
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 150
Description: Exo-enzymes associated with bacterial degradation of organic matter. Samples collected from CTD deployment from upper 75m and incubation experiments done at Process stations. Samples analysed using fluorescence techniques.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 40
Description: Samples collected from the McLane pumps for the determination of particulate metals, carbon, nitrogen and biogenic silicate. These sample will require further analysis using ICP-MS techniques
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of measurements = 100
Description: Measurement of photo-physiological parameters done at sea using a Water-PAM (Walz GmBH). These measurements will help to understand the acclimation of phytoplankton to different light levels and assess any potential nutrient stresss.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of experiments = 30
Description: Presence of nifh, a gene that controls the expression of nitrogenase, the primary enzyme used during nitrogen fixation. Samples collected from upper 75m from CTD, and in incubation experiments at Process stations. Analysis at IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany.
Meteorology 
Atmospheric chemistryQuantity: number of samples = 1
Description: Atmospheric dust collection. These samples will require further analysis involving ICP-MS technique.