Cruise inventory

RRS James Clark Ross JR19940101 (JR06 Leg 1)

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR19940101 (JR06 Leg 1)
Cruise period1994-01-01 — 1994-02-01
StatusCompleted
Port of departureStanley, Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Port of returnGrytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesTo undertake large scale oceanographic/hydroacoustic transects in the Scotia Sea using underway monitoring and CTD casts, with reference to remote sensed data, to investigate large and mesoscale variability. To undertake a study of predator/prey interactions between the major bird and seal populations based in South Georgia and their food in the ocean nearby. This cruise was subtitled "Predator/Prey Cruise"; its primary objective to provide cross programme links between the Pelagic Ecosystem Studies (PES) and the Higher Predator programme. This was facilitated by the introduction of remote sensing techniques that could give real-time information on sea-surface temperature and the location of satellite tagged predators. This primary objective was approached by investigating the following areas:

(1) The multiple aims of PES long term monitoring programme (specifically resources)
(2) Shipborne observations of sea-birds
(3) The use of remote sensing data

The cruise demonstrated a link between krill populations and the breeding success of krill dependant predators. There was almost a total lack of swarming krill (Euphausia superba) in the Scotia Sea and around South Georgia. There were exceptionally low breeding success rates among bird and seal populations but this allowed observations of the Southern Ocean food-web when the ecosystem was under severe biological stress. Seamount biological layer was composed of copepods, amphipods and small euphausiids and a marked absence of gelatinous nektonic forms as well as predatory cnidarians and ctenophores.

Results:
1. krill caught from FNET, Multinet and RMT25 hauls, measured, aged and sexed.
2. Zooplankton samples were taken with vertically hauled Z nets for copepod egg production and grazing studies. LHPR profiles were also taken to 200m depth at biomass spectrum stations.
3. Quantify aspects foraging behaviour of albatrosses (38 feeding flocks with 21 near krill patches and 32 over continental shelves).
4. Seabird olfactory experiments to test birds' ability to detect DMS
5. Video footage of birds in flight - measure wing beat frequencies and record soaring manoeuvres
6. Particulate chlorophyll estimated fluorometrically to measure biomass variation, analysed continuously from pumped seawater supply and from discrete water samples, vertical sections and biomass spectrum sites.
7. Krill biomass spectrum - CTD grid around the Seamount with water samples for chlorophyll determinations and nutrient analysis were taken. XBTs deployed half way between CTD stations. Krill biomass spectrum sampled down current from sea mount.
8. Inorganic seawater nutrients measured to help identify water masses - analysis of non-toxic seawater supply continuously and of discrete CTD water bottle samples.
9. Microbial production and respiration studied at continental shelf for krill biomass with 9 CTD casts and detailed vertical profiles at 19 depths (0-280m)
10. SST remote sensing images
11. Satellite taggings of albatrosses and a fur seal from Bird Island
12. 4 large-scale transects during austral summer, 3 were opportunistic and comprised underway sampling.1 specifically sited transect of 14 CTD stations with water samples were taken at 6 depths 0-20m for chlorophyll and at 6 depths >200m for nutrient analysis. Vertically hauled "Z" nets deployed over the upper 200m at 8 CTD stations
13. Underway acoustic 120 and 38kHz echo-sounder data collected to locate krill, whilst on passage and during all surveys
14. Composition and vertical distribution of fish
Chief scientistMartin G White (British Antarctic Survey)
ProjectPelagic Ecosystem Studies
Coordinating bodyBritish Antarctic Survey (BAS)
Cruise reportRRS James Clark Ross JR19940101 (JR06 Leg 1) cruise report jr06.pdf — access key 'C' (7.42 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralSouth West Atlantic Ocean (limit 20W)
SpecificS Ocean; esp. around South Georgia
Track chartsRRS James Clark Ross JR19940101 (JR06 Leg 1) cruise track — trk3951a.html RRS James Clark Ross JR19940101 (JR06 Leg 1) cruise track — trk3951b.html
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
BathythermographQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) physical oceanographic data measured during CTD casts - surface to near seabed
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
CTD stationsQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) physical oceanographic data measured during CTD casts - surface to near seabed
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 9
Description: microbial production and respiration studied with CTD casts
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurementsQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurementsQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) physical oceanographic data measured during CTD casts - surface to near seabed
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: physical oceanographic measures from 8pm
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: continuous below surface shipborne ADCP
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) physical oceanographic data measured during CTD casts - surface to near seabed
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of profiles = 9
Description: microbial production and respiration studied with CTD casts
PhosphateQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: measurements from underway continuous sampling during vessels operation from 8m depth
PhosphateQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
PhosphateQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) measurements from standard depths sampled with CTD rosette - from surface to near seabed or 3000m
PhosphateQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: inorganic seawater nutrients measured - continuous and discrete samples
PhosphateQuantity: number of profiles = 19
Description: detailed vertical profiles for krill microbial studies - depths 0-280m
NitrateQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
NitrateQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: measurements from underway continuous sampling during vessels operation from 8m depth
NitrateQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) measurements from standard depths sampled with CTD rosette - from surface to near seabed or 3000m
NitrateQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: inorganic seawater nutrients measured - continuous and discrete samples
NitrateQuantity: number of profiles = 19
Description: detailed vertical profiles for krill microbial studies - depths 0-280m
NitriteQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: measurements from underway continuous sampling during vessels operation from 8m depth
NitriteQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
NitriteQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) measurements from standard depths sampled with CTD rosette - from surface to near seabed or 3000m
NitriteQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: inorganic seawater nutrients measured - continuous and discrete samples
NitriteQuantity: number of profiles = 19
Description: detailed vertical profiles for krill microbial studies - depths 0-280m
Total - NQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: measurements from underway continuous sampling during vessels operation from 8m depth
Total - NQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) measurements from standard depths sampled with CTD rosette - from surface to near seabed or 3000m
AmmoniaQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: measurements from underway continuous sampling during vessels operation from 8m depth
AmmoniaQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
AmmoniaQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: inorganic seawater nutrients measured - continuous and discrete samples
SilicateQuantity: number of profiles = 19
Description: detailed vertical profiles for krill microbial studies - depths 0-280m
SilicateQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: inorganic seawater nutrients measured - continuous and discrete samples
SilicateQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
SilicateQuantity: number of stations = 176
Description: (leg 1 and 2 combined) measurements from standard depths sampled with CTD rosette - from surface to near seabed or 3000m
SilicateQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: measurements from underway continuous sampling during vessels operation from 8m depth
Other chemical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of images = 2
Description: SST remote sensing images
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: phytoplankton estimates from underway measurements of fluorescence from particulate chlorophyll
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 9
Description: microbial production and respiration studied with CTD casts
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 9
Description: microbial production and respiration studied with CTD casts
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 19
Description: detailed vertical profiles for krill microbial studies - depths 0-280m
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of experiments = 6
Description: 24hour incubation grazing experiments
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of stations = 8
Description: vertically hauled "Z" nets
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 57
Description: Occurrence and biometry of euphausia superba
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of specimens = 471
Description: krill measured, aged and sexed.
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 7
Description: LHPR hauls taken to 200m
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 39
Description: stratified vertical Z net hauls
Eggs and larvaeDescription: Rhincalanus gigas - 24 hour incubations, samples of eggs and copepodite stages taken
BirdsQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
BirdsQuantity: activity duration in days = 26
Description: video records of bird flight
BirdsQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: observations of birds and seals link predators and prey
BirdsQuantity: activity duration in days = 28
Description: continuous observations of bird distribution and experiments on olfactory ability
Mammals and reptilesQuantity: activity duration in days = 32
Description: observations of birds and seals link predators and prey
Pelagic fishQuantity: number of hauls = 62
Description: from both legs, 650 fish caught leg 1- composition and vertical distribution of fish
Acoustic reflection on marine organisms.Quantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: continous hydroacoustics of upper water column (EK500)
Acoustic reflection on marine organisms.Quantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
TaggingsQuantity: number of specimens = 7
Description: satellite tagging: 3 grey-headed albatrosses, 3 black-browed albatrosses and 1 fur seal
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: activity duration in days = 54
Description: station data, cruise track records etc
Meteorology 
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: number of surveys = 4
Description: large transects underway observations and CTD stations
Data held at BODC 
Series/Profiles 
108  CTD/STD cast
Density of the water column
Vertical spatial coordinates
Salinity of the water column
Temperature of the water column
Density of the water column
Vertical spatial coordinates
Salinity of the water column
Temperature of the water column

BODC idDate/TimeLocationDoc.
6428751994-02-15 12:49 49° 45' 31" S  36° 8' 12" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642875
6428871994-02-15 15:43 49° 49' 54" S  36° 3' 1" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642887
6428991994-02-15 17:39 49° 54' 38" S  35° 58' 23" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642899
6429061994-02-15 19:39 49° 59' 10" S  35° 54' 8" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642906
6429181994-02-15 21:20 50° 3' 46" S  35° 49' 39" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642918
6429311994-02-15 23:01 50° 8' 16" S  35° 45' 2" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642931
6429431994-02-16 01:15 50° 12' 55" S  35° 40' 38" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642943
6429551994-02-20 23:45 54° 15' 52" S  35° 16' 55" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642955
6417791994-01-03 11:19 50° 11' 49" S  41° 46' 4" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641779
6417801994-01-03 15:45 50° 28' 35" S  41° 31' 45" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641780
6417921994-01-03 19:53 50° 46' 6" S  41° 17' 59" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641792
6418111994-01-04 00:13 51° 2' 59" S  41° 3' 22" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641811
6418231994-01-04 04:45 51° 19' 52" S  40° 49' 54" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641823
6418351994-01-04 10:48 51° 37' 4" S  40° 36' 27" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641835
6418471994-01-04 16:46 51° 54' 0" S  40° 23' 5" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641847
6418591994-01-04 21:10 52° 10' 58" S  40° 9' 28" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641859
6418601994-01-05 03:33 52° 27' 53" S  39° 53' 46" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641860
6418721994-01-05 08:35 52° 45' 6" S  39° 39' 10" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641872
6418841994-01-05 11:54 53° 2' 18" S  39° 24' 23" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641884
6418961994-01-05 15:17 53° 19' 9" S  39° 9' 15" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641896
6419031994-01-05 18:19 53° 36' 9" S  38° 54' 10" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641903
6419151994-01-08 15:02 54° 29' 14" S  35° 36' 40" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641915
6419271994-01-11 15:43 53° 43' 20" S  38° 15' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641927
6419391994-01-11 17:20 53° 43' 37" S  38° 15' 6" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641939
6419401994-01-11 22:00 53° 38' 30" S  38° 7' 29" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641940
6419521994-01-11 22:47 53° 38' 18" S  38° 12' 5" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641952
6419641994-01-11 23:41 53° 38' 21" S  38° 16' 38" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641964
6419761994-01-12 00:59 53° 38' 19" S  38° 21' 4" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641976
6419881994-01-12 02:07 53° 38' 21" S  38° 25' 32" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 641988
6420031994-01-12 03:28 53° 38' 39" S  38° 30' 11" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642003
6420151994-01-12 04:52 53° 40' 58" S  38° 29' 55" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642015
6420271994-01-12 06:03 53° 41' 3" S  38° 25' 13" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642027
6420391994-01-12 06:57 53° 41' 1" S  38° 20' 40" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642039
6420401994-01-12 07:42 53° 41' 3" S  38° 16' 25" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642040
6420521994-01-12 08:32 53° 40' 57" S  38° 11' 52" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642052
6420641994-01-12 09:19 53° 40' 56" S  38° 7' 34" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642064
6420761994-01-12 10:02 53° 43' 28" S  38° 8' 1" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642076
6420881994-01-12 10:50 53° 43' 28" S  38° 12' 12" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642088
6421071994-01-12 11:43 53° 43' 33" S  38° 16' 50" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642107
6421191994-01-12 12:28 53° 43' 27" S  38° 21' 7" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642119
6421201994-01-12 13:09 53° 43' 25" S  38° 25' 54" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642120
6421321994-01-12 13:50 53° 43' 29" S  38° 30' 2" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642132
6421441994-01-12 14:41 53° 46' 1" S  38° 30' 10" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642144
6421561994-01-12 15:32 53° 46' 5" S  38° 25' 9" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642156
6421681994-01-12 16:25 53° 45' 57" S  38° 20' 40" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642168
6421811994-01-12 17:14 53° 46' 2" S  38° 16' 34" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642181
6421931994-01-12 18:04 53° 46' 2" S  38° 11' 41" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642193
6422001994-01-12 18:48 53° 46' 1" S  38° 7' 43" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642200
6422121994-01-12 19:35 53° 48' 26" S  38° 7' 37" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642212
6422241994-01-12 20:22 53° 48' 23" S  38° 12' 27" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642224
6422361994-01-13 03:17 53° 50' 58" S  38° 34' 5" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642236
6422481994-01-13 03:58 53° 48' 28" S  38° 34' 20" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642248
6422611994-01-13 04:40 53° 45' 51" S  38° 34' 19" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642261
6422731994-01-13 05:21 53° 43' 22" S  38° 34' 22" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642273
6422851994-01-13 06:08 53° 40' 55" S  38° 34' 14" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642285
6422971994-01-13 07:36 53° 38' 28" S  38° 34' 33" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642297
6423041994-01-13 09:08 53° 35' 50" S  38° 34' 23" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642304
6423161994-01-13 11:03 53° 33' 19" S  38° 34' 21" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642316
6423281994-01-13 13:00 53° 31' 1" S  38° 34' 37" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642328
6423411994-01-13 16:21 53° 30' 56" S  38° 3' 20" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642341
6423531994-01-13 18:05 53° 33' 32" S  38° 3' 20" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642353
6423651994-01-13 19:34 53° 36' 6" S  38° 3' 25" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642365
6423771994-01-13 20:32 53° 38' 34" S  38° 3' 17" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642377
6423891994-01-13 21:08 53° 41' 1" S  38° 3' 22" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642389
6423901994-01-13 21:42 53° 43' 29" S  38° 3' 26" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642390
6424081994-01-13 22:18 53° 46' 1" S  38° 3' 25" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642408
6424211994-01-13 22:57 53° 48' 24" S  38° 3' 24" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642421
6424331994-01-13 23:44 53° 51' 1" S  38° 3' 27" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642433
6424451994-01-14 00:25 53° 53' 28" S  38° 3' 35" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642445
6424571994-01-14 01:05 53° 55' 53" S  38° 3' 33" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642457
6424691994-01-14 15:13 53° 43' 21" S  38° 14' 22" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642469
6424701994-01-16 15:31 53° 43' 3" S  38° 15' 9" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642470
6424821994-01-17 14:25 53° 43' 32" S  38° 14' 53" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642482
6424941994-01-31 19:10 53° 32' 29" S  41° 50' 8" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642494
6425011994-02-02 03:45 53° 35' 53" S  38° 54' 5" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642501
6425131994-02-02 07:35 53° 19' 1" S  39° 8' 58" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642513
6425251994-02-02 11:23 53° 2' 10" S  39° 23' 57" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642525
6425371994-02-02 15:29 52° 45' 6" S  39° 38' 14" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642537
6425491994-02-02 19:21 52° 27' 56" S  39° 53' 42" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642549
6425501994-02-02 23:12 52° 10' 56" S  40° 9' 7" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642550
6425621994-02-03 04:35 51° 54' 1" S  40° 22' 47" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642562
6425741994-02-03 08:30 51° 36' 52" S  40° 36' 7" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642574
6425861994-02-03 14:06 51° 19' 55" S  40° 50' 5" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642586
6425981994-02-03 19:00 51° 2' 55" S  41° 3' 41" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642598
6426051994-02-03 23:18 50° 45' 49" S  41° 17' 50" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642605
6426171994-02-04 03:59 50° 28' 55" S  41° 31' 56" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642617
6426291994-02-04 07:32 50° 12' 2" S  41° 46' 5" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642629
6426301994-02-04 11:36 50° 0' 2" S  41° 59' 45" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642630
6426421994-02-07 06:44 49° 47' 43" S  37° 26' 45" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642642
6426541994-02-08 16:57 49° 48' 3" S  37° 27' 1" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642654
6426661994-02-08 18:19 49° 48' 49" S  37° 28' 38" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642666
6426781994-02-09 16:20 49° 48' 7" S  37° 25' 22" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642678
6426911994-02-10 21:00 49° 48' 1" S  37° 26' 56" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642691
6427091994-02-11 19:02 49° 47' 59" S  37° 27' 3" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642709
6427101994-02-13 09:17 49° 41' 55" S  37° 40' 20" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642710
6427221994-02-13 13:25 49° 44' 45" S  37° 33' 49" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642722
6427341994-02-13 16:30 49° 47' 52" S  37° 27' 9" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642734
6427461994-02-13 20:25 49° 51' 21" S  37° 20' 8" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642746
6427581994-02-13 22:25 49° 54' 18" S  37° 12' 58" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642758
6427711994-02-14 00:46 49° 57' 32" S  37° 5' 58" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642771
6427831994-02-14 02:50 50° 0' 43" S  36° 59' 53" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642783
6427951994-02-14 06:59 50° 3' 46" S  36° 52' 52" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642795
6428021994-02-14 10:07 50° 6' 58" S  36° 46' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642802
6428141994-02-14 13:08 50° 10' 22" S  36° 39' 35" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642814
6428261994-02-14 19:45 49° 27' 9" S  36° 25' 55" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642826
6428381994-02-15 04:07 49° 31' 51" S  36° 21' 6" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642838
6428511994-02-15 06:14 49° 36' 31" S  36° 16' 28" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642851
6428631994-02-15 09:47 49° 40' 36" S  36° 11' 50" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 642863
Discrete samples 
16  CTD frame plus rosette samplerAmmonium and ammonia concentration parameters in water bodies
Silicate concentration parameters in the water column
Nitrate concentration parameters in the water column
Nitrite concentration parameters in the water column
Phosphate concentration parameters in the water column