Vivaldi '91 (Pilot cruise for seasonal studies in the North Atlantic)

Data set information

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Data holding centreNational Oceanography Centre (Southampton)
CountryUnited Kingdom  United Kingdom
Time periodFrom 25 April to 16 May 1991; from 18 May to 10 June 1991
Geographical area

North East Atlantic, 39° N - 54° N, 12° W - 34deg


Air pressure; Air temperature; Particulate inorganic carbon concentrations in the water column; Chlorophyll pigment concentrations in water bodies; Dissolved oxygen parameters in the water column; Wind strength and direction; Chlorofluorocarbon concentrations in the water column; Vertical velocity of the water column (currents); Nitrate concentration parameters in the water column; Concentration of other hydrocarbons in the atmosphere; Partial pressure (pCO2) and fugacity (fCO2) of carbon dioxide in the water column; Phosphate concentration parameters in the water column; Salinity of the water column; Horizontal velocity of the water column (currents); Wave height and period statistics; Zooplankton taxonomy-related abundance per unit volume of the water column; Zooplankton non taxonomy-related abundance per unit volume of the water column; Total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) concentration in the water column; Alkalinity, acidity and pH of the water column; Transmittance and attenuance of the water column; Silicate concentration parameters in the water column; Long-wave radiation; Temperature of the water column; Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere


Anemometers; meteorological packages; fluorometers; current meters; satellite tracking system; radiometers; thermosalinographs; plankton nets; discrete water samplers; CTD undulators; transmissometers; CTD; current profilers; dissolved gas sensors; discrete air samplers; wave recorders


As a major contribution to the UK World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Vivaldi was conceived as a series of seasonal surveys covering the North Atlantic. In order to obtain both spatial coverage and high resolution, a plan was developed for the Vivaldi '91 trial in which nearly north-south SeaSoar sections (spaced 300km apart relative to longitude 20° W as origin) would be complemented by deep CTD stations every 3 degrees of latitude. Vivaldi '91 (25 Apr - 10 Jun 1991) represented the first attempt to carry out a systematic survey as suggested by the Vivaldi concept. The survey was carried out in two parts, first a southeastern part from Barry, UK to Ponta Delgada, Azores and then a western and northern part from Ponta Delgada back to Barry. The area covered by the Vivaldi '91 cruises was 39° N to 54° N, 12° W to 34° W. A total of 35 deep CTD casts was made with a Neil Brown Mk IIIb CTD. The CTD and SeaSoar data were complemented by a shipboard ADCP, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) tracer chemistry, oxygen, nutrient and chlorophyll measurements and mean surface meteorology. Surface temperature and salinity from the thermosalinograph were recorded every 30 seconds, and surface salinity samples were taken from the non-toxic supply every hour whilst underway. Surface chlorophyll samples were taken every hour. Surface nutrient and alkalinity/pH samples were taken every 30 minutes. Alkalinity, pH, inorganic carbon, pCO2 measurements were taken only on the first part of the cruise.

OriginatorsNational Oceanography Centre (Southampton)
OrganisationNational Oceanography Centre (Southampton)

National Oceanography Centre (Southampton)
University of Southampton Waterfront Campus European Way
SO14 3ZH
United Kingdom

Telephone+44 23 8059 6666
Collating centreBritish Oceanographic Data Centre
Local identifier1017014
Global identifier270
Last revised2009-10-15