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Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1734794


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category CTD or STD cast
Instrument Type
NameCategories
Sea-Bird SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor  dissolved gas sensors
Tritech PA-200 Altimeter  altimeters
Underwater PAR radiometer  radiometers
WET Labs {Sea-Bird WETLabs} C-Star transmissometer  transmissometers
Sea-Bird SBE 3plus (SBE 3P) temperature sensor  water temperature sensor
Sea-Bird SBE 4C conductivity sensor  salinity sensor
Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka III fluorometer  fluorometers
Paroscientific Digiquartz depth sensors  water pressure sensors
Instrument Mounting lowered unmanned submersible
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Prof Karen Heywood
Originating Organization University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences
Processing Status banked
Online delivery of data Download available - Ocean Data View (ODV) format
Project(s) Ice Sheet Stability (iSTAR) Programme
Ocean2ice (iSTAR A)
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier JR294_CTD_5
BODC Series Reference 1734794
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2014-02-03 04:42
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) -
Nominal Cycle Interval 2.0 decibars
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 70.74200 S ( 70° 44.5' S )
Longitude 102.12150 W ( 102° 7.3' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.0 to 0.01 n.miles
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth 2.97 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth 2476.56 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height 9.44 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height 2483.03 m
Sea Floor Depth 2486.0 m
Sea Floor Depth Source CRREP
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Variable common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth, but this depth varies significantly during the series
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Unspecified -
Sea Floor Depth Datum -
 

Parameters

BODC CODERankUnitsTitle
ACYCAA011DimensionlessSequence number
CNDCST011Siemens per metreElectrical conductivity of the water body by CTD
CPHLPR011Milligrams per cubic metreConcentration of chlorophyll-a {chl-a CAS 479-61-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >unknown phase] by in-situ chlorophyll fluorometer
DOXYZZ011Micromoles per litreConcentration of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by in-situ sensor
PFDPAR011MicroEinsteins per square metre per secondIrradiance as photons of electromagnetic radiation (PAR wavelengths)
POPTZZ011PercentTransmittance (unspecified wavelength) per unspecified length of the water body by transmissometer
PRESPR011DecibarsPressure (spatial coordinate) exerted by the water body by profiling pressure sensor and correction to read zero at sea level
PSALST011DimensionlessPractical salinity of the water body by CTD and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm
TEMPP9011Degrees CelsiusTemperature (ITS-90) of the water body

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database


Data Access Policy

Open Data

These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.

If the Information Provider does not provide a specific attribution statement, or if you are using Information from several Information Providers and multiple attributions are not practical in your product or application, you may consider using the following:

"Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v1.0."


Narrative Documents

Sea-Bird Dissolved Oxygen Sensor SBE 43 and SBE 43F

The SBE 43 is a dissolved oxygen sensor designed for marine applications. It incorporates a high-performance Clark polarographic membrane with a pump that continuously plumbs water through it, preventing algal growth and the development of anoxic conditions when the sensor is taking measurements.

Two configurations are available: SBE 43 produces a voltage output and can be incorporated with any Sea-Bird CTD that accepts input from a 0-5 volt auxiliary sensor, while the SBE 43F produces a frequency output and can be integrated with an SBE 52-MP (Moored Profiler CTD) or used for OEM applications. The specifications below are common to both.

Specifications

Housing Plastic or titanium
Membrane

0.5 mil- fast response, typical for profile applications

1 mil- slower response, typical for moored applications

Depth rating

600 m (plastic) or 7000 m (titanium)

10500 m titanium housing available on request

Measurement range 120% of surface saturation
Initial accuracy 2% of saturation
Typical stability 0.5% per 1000 h

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers

The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.

Underwater unit

The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.

Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors

The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.

The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.

Additional sensors

Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.

Deck unit or SEARAM

Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.

Specifications

Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:

Parameter Range Initial accuracy Resolution at 24 Hz Response time
Temperature -5 to 35°C 0.001°C 0.0002°C 0.065 sec
Conductivity 0 to 7 S m-1 0.0003 S m-1 0.00004 S m-1 0.065 sec (pumped)
Pressure 0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m) 0.015% of full scale 0.001% of full scale 0.015 sec

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka MKIII fluorometer

The Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka MKIII is a logarithmic response fluorometer. Filters are available to enable the instrument to measure chlorophyll, rhodamine, fluorescein and turbidity.

It uses a pulsed (5.5 Hz) xenon light source discharging along two signal paths to eliminate variations in the flashlamp intensity. The reference path measures the intensity of the light source whilst the signal path measures the intensity of the light emitted from the specimen under test. The reference signal and the emitted light signals are then applied to a ratiometric circuit. In this circuit, the ratio of returned signal to reference signal is computed and scaled logarithmically to achieve a wide dynamic range. The logarithmic conversion accuracy is maintained at better than one percent of the reading over the full output range of the instrument.

Two variants of the instrument are available, both manufactured in titanium, capable of operating in depths from shallow water down to 2000 m and 6000 m respectively. The optical characteristics of the instrument in its different detection modes are visible below:

Excitation Chlorophyll a Rhodamine Fluorescein Turbidity
Wavelength (nm) 430 500 485 440*
Bandwidth (nm) 105 70 22 80*
Emission Chlorophyll a Rhodamine Fluorescein Turbidity
Wavelength (nm) 685 590 530 440*
Bandwidth (nm) 30 45 30 80*

* The wavelengths for the turbidity filters are customer selectable but must be in the range 400 to 700 nm. The same wavelength is used in the excitation path and the emission path.

The instrument measures chlorophyll a, rhodamine and fluorescein with a concentration range of 0.01 µg l-1 to 100 µg l-1. The concentration range for turbidity is 0.01 to 100 FTU (other wavelengths are available on request).

The instrument accuracy is ± 0.02 µg l-1 (or ± 3% of the reading, whichever is greater) for chlorophyll a, rhodamine and fluorescein. The accuracy for turbidity, over a 0 - 10 FTU range, is ± 0.02 FTU (or ± 3% of the reading, whichever is greater).

Further details are available from the Aquatracka MKIII specification sheet.

Underwater PAR radiometer

Underwater PAR radiometer of unknown type. Assumed to have a spectral response of 400-700nm. Could have any type of collector (flat plate cosine collector, spherical or hemispherical).

Tritech Digital Precision Altimeter PA200

This altimeter is a sonar ranging device that gives the height above the sea bed when mounted vertically. When mounted in any other attitude the sensor provides a subsea distance. It can be configured to operate on its own or under control from an external unit and can be supplied with simultaneous analogue and digital outputs, allowing them to interface to PC devices, data loggers, telemetry systems and multiplexers.

These instruments can be supplied with different housings, stainless steel, plastic and aluminum, which will limit the depth rating. There are three models available: the PA200-20S, PA200-10L and the PA500-6S, whose transducer options differ slightly.

Specifications

Transducer options PA200-20S P200-10L PA500-6S
Frequency (kHz) 200 200 500
Beamwidth (°) 20 Conical 10 included conical beam 6 Conical
Operating range

1 to 100 m

0.7 to 50 m

-

0.3 to 50 m

0.1 to 10 m

Common specifications are presented below

Digital resolution 1 mm
Analogue resolution 0.25% of range
Depth rating 700 , 2000, 4000 and 6800 m
Operating temperature -10 to 40°C

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

WETLabs C-Star transmissometer

This instrument is designed to measure beam transmittance by submersion or with an optional flow tube for pumped applications. It can be used in profiles, moorings or as part of an underway system.

Two models are available, a 25 cm pathlength, which can be built in aluminum or co-polymer, and a 10 cm pathlength with a plastic housing. Both have an analog output, but a digital model is also available.

This instrument has been updated to provide a high resolution RS232 data output, while maintaining the same design and characteristics.

Specifications

Pathlength 10 or 25 cm
Wavelength 370, 470, 530 or 660 nm
Bandwidth

~ 20 nm for wavelengths of 470, 530 and 660 nm

~ 10 to 12 nm for a wavelength of 370 nm

Temperature error 0.02 % full scale °C-1
Temperature range 0 to 30°C
Rated depth

600 m (plastic housing)

6000 m (aluminum housing)

Further details are available in the manufacturer's specification sheet or user guide.

BODC Processing for CTD data on JR20140226 cruise

Data Processing

The data collected from the SBE 911 plus CTD were submitted to BODC in matlab format representing data collected from a total of 105 stations.

Reformatting

The CTD files were reformatted to an internal format using BODC established procedures. The variables provided in the originators files that were reformatted can be found in the table below.

The parameters which were not reformatted include alt, ans, flag, gtime, lat, lon, names, pm, potemp, potemp1, potemp2 and scan as these are metadata/derived parameters and hence not measured environmental data. However, these variables are available upon request.

The table below illustrates how the variables reformatted within the matlab files were mapped to the appropriate BODC parameter codes

Originators Variable Name Units Description BODC Parameter Code Units
cond1 Millisiemens per centimetre (mS/cm) Electrical conductivity of the water body by CTD CNDCST01 Siemens per metre (S/m)
cond2 Millisiemens per centimetre (mS/cm) Electrical conductivity of the water body by CTD (sensor 2) CNDCST02 Siemens per metre (S/m)
fluor Milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m^3) Concentration of chlorophyll-a {chl-a CAS 479-61-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >unknown phase] by in-situ chlorophyll fluorometer. CPHLPR01 Milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m^3)
par1 (µEinsteins/m2 /s) Irradiance as photons (PAR wavelengths) PFDPAR01 uE/m^2/s
press Decibars (dbar) Pressure (spatial co-ordinate) exerted by the water body by profiling pressure sensor and corrected to read zero at sea level PRESPR01 Decibars (dbar)
temp1 Degrees Celsius (degC) Temperature (ITS-90) of the water body TEMPP901 (degC)
temp2 Degrees Celsius (degC) Temperature (ITS-90 second sensor) of the water body by CTD or STD. TEMPS902 (degC)
trans Percent (%) Transmittance (unspecified wavelength) per unspecified length of the water body by transmissometer POPTZZ01 Percent (%)
sal1 Dimensionless Practical salinity of the water body by CTD and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm. PSALST01 Dimensionless
Sal2 Dimensionless Practical salinity (second sensor) of the water body by CTD and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm PSALST02 Dimensionless
oxy Micromoles per litre (umolpl) Concentration of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by in-situ sensor DOXYZZ01 Micromoles per litre (umol/l)

No derived parameters were created during reformatting. The only parameter to require a unit conversion is the conductivity parameter. Data from secondary sensors (cond2, temp2, sal2) was removed from the final files, however these data are available upon request.

Screening

The reformatted data were visualised using the in house software EDSERPLO which checked for any suspect/improbable data. The data is of good quality and therefore required no quality control flags to be applied.

Originators Data Processing for CTD data on JR20140226 cruise

Sampling Strategy

As part of the NERC funded Ice Sheet Stability Programme (iSTAR) which investigates the stability of the West Antarctic ice sheet, a total of 105 CTD stations were carried out on board the RRS James Clark Ross JR20140226 (JR294/ JR295) cruise. The cruise took place as part of the Ocean2ice project (iSTAR A) which explores the processes and variability of heat transport toward the ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea embayment, which in turn may contribute to the melting of the glaciers. The cruise took place from the 26 January 2014 to 08 March 2014 with CTD collection taking place from the 30 January 2014 to 05 March 2014.

Data were collected at various depths from the SBE 911 plus CTD which was equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor (SBE 43), beam transmissometer (Wetlabs C-Star), fluorometer (Aquatraka Mk3), PAR sensor (Biospherical Instruments Inc.), standards thermometer (SBE 35), an altimeter (Tritech PA200) and a 24 x 10 litre water sampling system.

Data Processing

The data from each CTD station were processed using the Seabird processing software Seasoft SBE Data Processing, Version 7.22.2. The dissolved oxygen was provided in all units available through the Seabird processing. Fluorescence and transmittance had only basic despiking applied with no other data processing/clean-up/calibration given by the originator. In turn, the PAR data was not processed in any way.

The procedures applied to the CTD files were:

  • Data Conversion: created both a data and bottle file
  • Align CTD: offset for temperature and conductivity data was zero and for oxygen was 5
  • Cell Thermal Mass: constants used to correct the data were 0.03 for α and 7 for 1/β

Files were then processed using various matlab scripts:,/p>

  • ctdcal.m: reads the files processed by the SeaBird software and saves them in .mat format
  • offpress.m: applies a pressure offset to the data and removal of data when the pump was not flushing
  • spike_t90.m: checks and removes spikes in conductivity, temperature, fluorescence, transmittance and oxygen. Removes fluorescence values greater than one and transmittance values lower than 80
  • wake.m: allows the detection of wakes in pressure data, removes data when pressure level is sampled twice and when the rate of change of pressure falls below a set threshold (0.05 db) scan-1
  • interpol.m: interpolates absent data for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence, transmittance and oxygen
  • makebot_t90.m: creates bottle files with data from when the CTD bottles were fired
  • newvar_t90.m: calculates salinity from conductivity and temperature and derives potential temperature
  • splitcast.m: splits the data in up and downcast
  • ctd2db.m: bins the downcast data to two decibars
  • ctd1hz.m: bins the up and downcast data to one hertz

The CTD packaged used to perform the data had the following sensors installed:

Sensor Serial Number Last calibration date
Deck unit SBE11 Plus 0458  
Underwater Unit SBE 9 0707  
CTD swivel + linkage 196111  
Carousel + 24 bottle pylon 0636  
Digiquartz Pressure 89973 22 August 2012
SBE 3 plus temperature 03P4472 30 August 2012
SBE 3 plus temperature 03P2366 30 August 2012
SBE 4C Conductivity 04C2222 24 August 2012
SBE 4C Conductivity 04C2289 21 August 2012
C-Star Transmissometer CST-846DR 13 March 2013
Aquatracka MK3 Fluorometer 088-216 19 February 2013
PAR 7235 24 April 2013
PA200 Altimeter 163162 16 May 2012
SBE43 Oxygen 2290 31 March 2012
BE35 Standard Thermometer 3527735-0024  
SBE 5T Pump 4488  
SBE 5T Pump 3415  

Project Information

The Ice Sheet Stability (iSTAR) programme

Background and objectives

The iSTAR programme aims to measure the rate that ice is being lost from the West Antarctic ice sheet, and to improve our understanding of what might be driving this loss how it is changing over time. The rate of loss of water from ice in glaciers in the Antarctic (and Greenland) is more than the amount of water being deposited in these areas by precipitation. This has changed our understanding of these systems and the rate of ice loss is a matter of interest for sea level and climate research. Improving our understanding of the processes and impacts of changes to these systems is vital for better predictions for sea level rise in the future and will feed in to climate research. This programme combines scientific research of glaciers and the surrounding ocean environment (including how they impact each other). Research about the oceans was focused on the Amundsen Sea Sector of West Antarctica with instruments deployed from the research ship RRS James Clark Ross. Research about the ice was focused on Pine Island Glacier, Thwaites Glacier and Union Glacier with measurements taken during two expeditions across the ice. This programme was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

The programme is split in to four projects:

Ocean2ice: Processes and variability of ocean heat transport toward ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea Embayment (iSTAR A)

Ocean under ice: Ocean circulation and melting beneath the ice shelves of the south-eastern Amundsen Sea (iSTAR B)

Dynamic ice: Dynamical control on the response of Pine Island Glacier (iSTAR C)

Ice loss: The contribution to sea-level rise of the Amundsen Sea sector of Antarctica (iSTAR D)

Participants

The iSTAR research programme is managed by British Antarctic Survey (BAS) on behalf of NERC. Operational support, in the form of logistics planning and infrastructure, and Communication and Knowledge Exchange support are provided by BAS. There are four science projects and participants in these projects represent the following organisations:

  • British Antarctic Survey
  • National Oceanography Centre
  • Newcastle University
  • Scott Polar Research Institute
  • University College London
  • University of Bristol
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Southampton
  • University of St. Andrews
  • University of Tasmania
  • University of Washington

Fieldwork and data collection

A wide range of data parameters were collected for this programme. Physical and chemical measurements of the ocean close to and next to the ice shelf were made using instruments deployed from ship, on moorings, on autonomous platforms and seal tags. Measurements were also made of the glaciers and ice shelfs including radar and seismic surveys and ice cores. There were also meteorological and atmospheric measurements taken. For more information about the data collected on each of the four projects see the project web pages.

Data management

Data management for ocean data will be done by the British Oceanographic Data Centre whilst ice data will be managed by the Polar Data Centre.

For more information about iSTAR programme see the: iSTAR Programme Website


Ocean2ice: Processes and variability of ocean heat transport toward ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea Embayment (iSTAR A)

Background and objectives

Ocean2ice (otherwise referred to as iSTAR A) is a project that is part of NERC's Ice Sheet Stability programme. The project was designed to investigate how relatively warm water gets close to and beneath glaciers in the Antarctic and what impact this warm water has on the rate of ice melt at these sites. This research and collection of data will to feed in to climate and sea level forecasting and research. This project was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

Participants

The principal investigator for the Ocean2ice project is Professor Karen Heywood, University of East Anglia. Other participants in the project represent the following organisations:

  • British Antarctic Survey
  • National Oceanography Centre
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Southampton
  • University of St. Andrews

Fieldwork and data collection

Oceanographic data were collected from a wide range of instruments from the research ship RRS James Clark Ross between 26 January and 08 March 2014 in the Amundsen Sea. Data collected include measurements of the physical conditions (including temperature and salinity), current speeds and directions, chemical measurements of the water column (including oxygen and chlorophyll-a concentrations). A fleet of Seagliders (ocean robots that measure physical parameters including temperature, salinity and current speeds and directions) were also deployed to measure conditions close to the ice shelf. Moorings were deployed by the project and have measured conditions in the area over a couple of years. In addition Seal tags (small sensors glued to the fur of seals which fall off when the seals moult their fur) were deployed and transmit data back via satellite networks to scientists. These seal tag deployments give the scientists the rare opportunity to measure water properties below the ice shelf.

Data management

All data collected by the Ocean2ice project are to be submitted to the British Oceanographic Data Centre for careful storage, quality control, archiving and distribution to scientists, education, industry and the public.

For more information about Ocean2ice see the iSTAR A project page


Data Activity or Cruise Information

Cruise

Cruise Name JR20140126 (JR294, JR295)
Departure Date 2014-01-26
Arrival Date 2014-03-08
Principal Scientist(s)Karen J Heywood (University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences)
Ship RRS James Clark Ross

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information


No Fixed Station Information held for the Series


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
B nominal value
Q value below limit of quantification