Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1972177
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."
Teledyne RDI's Workhorse Monitor ADCP
The Workhorse Monitor acoustic doppler current profler (Teledyne RD Instruments) is a long-range and long-term self contained ADCP. It has a patented four beam signal (300, 600 or 1200 kHz) and a standard depth rating of 200m or 600m. It operates effectively between temperatures of -5°C and 45°C and has a velocity accuracy of ±1% ±5mm/s.
RRS James Clark Ross JR18002 ORCHESTRA Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (LADCP): BODC Processing
The LADCP data were supplied to BODC as 53 matlab files and were converted to the BODC internal format. The following table shows how the variables within the files were mapped to appropriate BODC parameter codes:
|Originator's Parameter Name||Units||BODC Parameter Code||Units||Comments|
|u||m s-1||LCEWLW01||cm s-1||Units converted by multiplying by 100.|
|v||m s-1||LCNSLW01||cm s-1||Units converted by multiplying by 100.|
|uerr||m s-1||ERRVLDCP||cm s-1||Units converted by multiplying by 100.|
All reformatted data were visualised using the in-house Edserplo software and screened for suspect and missing data.
Please note that raw LADCP files and processed files using University of Hawaii's LADCP processing software are available on request.
RRS James Clark Ross JR18002 ORCHESTRA Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (LADCP): Originators Data Processing
A total of 71 LADCP stations were completed during JR18002. A 300 kHz Workhorse Monitor lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) was attached onto the CTD frame in a downward-looking configuration. Before each cast a pre-deployment script was run to test that the internal electronics were performing correctly.
The binary files recorded by the instrument were downloaded onto the local computer after each cast. All data were processed using matlab code developed at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory by Martin Visbeck and updated by Andreas Thurnherr (Version LDEO_IX 13). This package calculates velocity based on both shear and inversion methods. Processing was carried out using four sets of constraints:
- ship navigation
- ship navigation and bottom tracking
- ship navigation and vessel-mounted ADCP
- ship navigation, bottom tracking and vessel-mounted ADCP
Further information on the LADCP processing can be found in pages 20-22 of the cruise report.
Ocean Regulation of Climate by Heat and Carbon Sequestration and Transports (ORCHESTRA)
The Ocean Regulation of Climate by Heat and Carbon Sequestration and Transports (ORCHESTRA) is a £8.4 million, five year (2016-2021) research programme funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The aim of the research is to to advance the understanding of, and capability to predict, the Southern Ocean's impact on climate change via its uptake and storage of heat and carbon. The programme will significantly reduce uncertainties concerning how this uptake and storage by the ocean influences global climate, by conducting a series of unique fieldwork campaigns and innovative model developments.
ORCHESTRA represents the first fully-unified activity by NERC institutes to address these challenges, and will draw in national and international partners to provide community coherence, and to build a legacy in knowledge and capability that will transcend the timescale of the programme itself.
It brings together science teams from six UK research institutions to investigate the role that the Southern Ocean plays in our changing climate and atmospheric carbon draw-down. It is led by British Antarctic Survey, in partnership with National Oceanography Centre, British Geological Survey, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, the Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling and the Sea Mammal Research Unit.
The oceans around Antarctica play a critical a key role in drawing down and storing large amounts of carbon and vast quantities of heat from from the atmosphere. Due to its remoteness and harsh environment, the Southern Ocean is the world's biggest data desert, and one of the hardest places to get right in climate models. The ORCHESTRA programme will make unique and important new measurements in the Southern Ocean using a range of techniques, including use of the world-class UK research vessel fleet, and deployments of innovative underwater robots. The new understanding obtained will guide key improvements to the current generation of computer models, and will enhance greatly our ability to predict climate into the future.
The scope of the programme includes interaction of the Southern Ocean with the atmosphere, exchange between the upper ocean mixed layer and the interior and exchange between the Southern Ocean and the global ocean.
Further details are available on the ORCHESTRA page.
Six different organisations are directly involved in research for ORCHESTRA. These institutions are:
- British Antarctic Survey (BAS)
- National Oceanography Centre (NOC)
- Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML)
- British Geological Survey (BGS)
- Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM)
- Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)
GO-SHIP are a third party organisation that, although not directly involved with the programme, will conduct ship based observations that will also be used by ORCHESTRA.
Three Work Packages have been funded by the ORCHESTRA programme. These are described in brief below:
Work Package 1: Interaction of the Southern ocean with the atmosphere
WP1 will use new observations of surface fluxes and their controlling parameters in order to better constrain the exchanges of heat and carbon loss across the surface of the Southern Ocean.
Work Package 2: Exchange between the upper ocean mixed layer and the interior.
This work package will combine observationally-derived data and model simulations to determine and understand the exchanges between the ocean mixed layer and its interior.
Work Package 3: Exchange between the Southern Ocean and the global ocean .
This WP will use budget analyses of the hydrographic/tracer sections to diagnose the three-dimensional velocity field of the waters entering, leaving and recirculating within the Southern Atlantic sector of the Southern ocean.
Fieldwork and data collection
The campaign consists of 12 core cruises on board the NERC research vessels RRS James Clark Ross and RRS James Cook and will include hydrographic/tracer sections conducted across Drake Passage (SR1b), the northern Weddell Sea/Scotia Sea (A23), the northern rim of the Weddell Gyre (ANDREXII) and across the South Atlantic (24S). Section I6S will be performed by GO-SHIP Project Partners. Measurements will include temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, velocity, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, inorganic nutrients, oxygen and carbon isotopes, and underway meteorological and surface ocean observations including pCO2.
Tags will be deployed on 30 Weddel seals and these will provide temperature and salinity profiles that can be used alongside the Argo data.
Autonomous underwater ocean gliders will conduct multi-month missions and will deliver data on ocean stratification, heat content, mixed layer depth and turbulent mixing over the upper 1 km, with previously-unobtainable temporal resolution. These gliders will be deployed in the Weddell Gyre and the ACC.
Field campaigns with the MASIN meteorological aircrafts will be conducted flying out of Rothera and Halley research stations and the Falkland Islands. These campaigns will deliver information on key variables relating to air-sea fluxes (surface and air temperature, wind, humidity, atmospheric CO2, radiation, turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum and CO2), in different sea ice conditions and oceanic regimes.
Eart Observation datasets will be used to inform the programme on the properties of the ocean, sea ice and atmosphere and on interactions between them.
A cluster of 6 deep ocean moorings in the Orkney Passage will collect year round series of AABW temperatre and transport. This work connects to the NERC funded project Dynamics of the Orkney Passage Outflow (DYNOPO).
The UK Earth System model (UKESM) and underlying physical model will be used to conduct analyses of heat and carbon uptake and transport by the Southern Ocean and their links to wider climate on decadal timescales.
An eddy-resolving (1/12°) sector model of the ocean south of 30°S with 75 vertical levels, will be built using the NEMO model coupled to the Los Alamos sea ice (CICE) model. The improvements on the ocean boundary layer will be based from the results from the NERC-funded OSMOSIS project and the inclusion of tides.
20-5 year runs of an adjoint model will be conducted to determine how key forcings and model states affect the uptake and subduction of heat and carbon by the ocean.
|Principal Scientist(s)||Yvonne L Firing (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)|
|Ship||RRS James Clark Ross|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
No Fixed Station Information held for the Series
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|