Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 884051
No Problem Report Found in the Database
Public domain data
These data have no specific confidentiality restrictions for users. However, users must acknowledge data sources as it is not ethical to publish data without proper attribution. Any publication or other output resulting from usage of the data should include an acknowledgment.
The recommended acknowledgment is
"This study uses data from the data source/organisation/programme, provided by the British Oceanographic Data Centre and funded by the funding body."
Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers
The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.
The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.
Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors
The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.
The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.
Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.
Deck unit or SEARAM
Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.
Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:
|Parameter||Range||Initial accuracy||Resolution at 24 Hz||Response time|
|Temperature||-5 to 35°C||0.001°C||0.0002°C||0.065 sec|
|Conductivity||0 to 7 S m-1||0.0003 S m-1||0.00004 S m-1||0.065 sec (pumped)|
|Pressure||0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m)||0.015% of full scale||0.001% of full scale||0.015 sec|
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.
RV Belgica 9412 CTD Data Documentation
Instrumentation and Shipboard Procedures
The CTD profiles were taken with a SeaBird SBE 911 plus system. The instrument was fitted with duplicate sensor sets, each including a conductivity and temperature sensor. Each sensor set was supplied with water by a separate pump. The water inlet was at the base of the bottle rosette. The CTD had a temperature and salinity (TC) duct with an inertia balanced pump flow to improve the quality of salinity measurements.
When not in use, the sensors were bathed in MilliQ water. SeaBird temperature sensors are high performance, pressure protected thermistors. Other sensors on the rig were a non-pulsed membrane dissolved oxygen cell and an Aqutracka fluorometer.
The CTD was periodically sent for calibration to SeaBird's NWRCC facility in Washington State. An average of 4 salinity samples were taken per cast, stored in crown-corked beer bottles, and determined on Beckman RB7 laboratory salinometer, calibrated using OSI standard seawater. The procedure has come out well in ICES intercalibration exercises. Nevertheless, the Beckman was not considered as accurate as the SeaBird: the bottle data were used as a check for instrument malfunction but not for recalibration. Similarly, temperature sensor performance was monitored against digital reversing thermometers but not recalibrated.
A SeaBird rosette sampler fitted with 12, 10 litre Niskin or Go-Flo bottles was mounted above the frame. The bases of the bottles were level with the pressure sensor with their tops 0.8m above it. Digital thermometers on water bottles were placed 0.63 m above the CTD temperature sensor.
The CTD sampled at 24 Hz but this was automatically reduced to 2 Hz by the deck unit. The data were logged on a PC using SeaBird's SEASAVE program.
The CTD was lowered at 0.8-1 m/s. On the upcast, the hauling rate is approximately the same, but was reduced on approach to a bottle firing depth to minimise wake interference.
The SeaBird DATCNV software was used to convert the binary raw data files into calibrated ASCII data that were supplied to BODC.
The salinity computation algorithm in the software is based on Fofonoff and Millard (1982). Salinity spiking on thermal gradients was minimised through software realignment of the temperature and conductivity channels.
The fluorometer data were calibrated to give nominal chlorophyll using the manufacturer's calibration.
The data were converted into the BODC internal format to allow the use of in-house software tools, notably the workstation graphics editor. In addition to reformatting, the transfer program applied the following modifications to the data:
Temperature has been converted from ITS68 to ITS90 by dividing the values by 1.00024.
Dissolved oxygen was converted from µmol/kg to µM by multiplying the values by
|(1000 + sigma-theta) / 1000|
Reformatted CTD data were transferred onto a high speed graphics workstation for manual inspection using a custom in-house graphics editor. The top and bottom of the downcast were marked to eliminate noisy data logged whilst the instrument was stabilising.
The data were examined point by point and any obvious spikes were flagged 'suspect'.
Once screened on the workstation, the CTD downcasts (17) were loaded into a database under the Oracle relational database management system and later migrated to the National Oceanographic Database. Note that the loader only included screened downcast data.
The temperature and salinity data are believed to be accurate as supplied and no further calibrations have been applied.
The fluorometer supplied values in terms of nominal chlorophyll. An empirical investigation of the CTD data against a set of extracted chlorophyll data (spectrophotometrically assayed using the SCOR equation, Strickland and Parsons, 1975) showed these values to have a strong linear relationship with chlorophyll described by the equation:
|True chlorophyll = Nominal chlorophyll * 395.15 - 3.988 (n=30: R2=94%)|
This posed a problem for the BODC CTD data management system which includes the hard wired assumption that chlorophyll is exponentially related to the raw fluorometer value. The problem was overcome by applying the equation given above to the raw data tables, applying a natural log transform to the data and setting the calibration coefficients held in the system to 1 and zero. In this way, the true calibrated values are retrieved by the BODC software.
On many of the casts, the chlorophyll data are missing from the top 20-30 m. This comprised obviously spurious values several orders of magnitude higher than the rest of the cast, dropping over a couple of records to the 'normal' magnitude. These caused problems when calibrated due to value overflow and had to be eliminated from the data set.
The data were supplied to BODC by MUMM before any oxygen bottle data became available. Consequently, the oxygen calibration could not be checked. Once bottle data were obtained, BODC undertook a calibration against 96 water bottle samples analysed by Winkler titration (University of Liege data).
The calibration equation obtained was:
|Ocorrected = Oobserved * 0.879 + 58.493 (R2 = 97.1%)|
This has been applied to the data.
The final data set was produced by binning the calibrated data to 1 (casts shallower than 100 m) or 2 decibars. The binning algorithm excluded any data points flagged suspect and attempted linear interpolation over gaps up to 3 bins wide. If any gaps larger than this were encountered, the data in the gaps were set null.
Fofonoff, N.P., Millard R.C. 1982. Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science. 44.
Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R. (1975). A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. pp.167-311.
Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) I
OMEX was a European multidisciplinary oceanographic research project that studied and quantified the exchange processes of carbon and associated elements between the continental shelf of western Europe and the open Atlantic Ocean. The project ran in two phases known as OMEX I (1993-1996) and OMEX II - II (1997-2000), with a bridging phase OMEX II - I (1996-1997). The project was supported by the European Union under the second and third phases of its MArine Science and Technology Programme (MAST) through contracts MAS2-CT93-0069 and MAS3-CT97-0076. It was led by Professor Roland Wollast from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium and involved more than 100 scientists from 10 European countries.
The aim of the Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) project was to gain a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the ocean margins in order to quantify fluxes of energy and matter (carbon, nutrients and other trace elements) across this boundary. The research culminated in the development of quantitative budgets for the areas studied using an approach based on both field measurements and modeling.
OMEX I (1993-1996)
The first phase of OMEX was divided into sub-projects by discipline:
- Biogeochemical Cycles
- Biological Processes
- Benthic Processes
- Carbon Cycling and Biogases
This emphasises the multidisciplinary nature of the research.
The project fieldwork focussed on the region of the European Margin adjacent to the Goban Spur (off the coast of Brittany) and the shelf break off Tromsø, Norway. However, there was also data collected off the Iberian Margin and to the west of Ireland. In all a total of 57 research cruises (excluding 295 Continuous Plankton Recorder tows) were involved in the collection of OMEX I data.
Field data collected during OMEX I have been published by BODC as a CD-ROM product, entitled:
- OMEX I Project Data Set (two discs)
Further descriptions of this product and order forms may be found on the BODC web site.
The data are also held in BODC's databases and subsets may be obtained by request from BODC.
|Principal Scientist(s)||Roland Wollast (Free University of Brussels, Laboratory of Chemical Oceanography and Water Geochemistry)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
No Fixed Station Information held for the Series
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|