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RRS James Clark Ross JR20140922 (AMT24, JR303)

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR20140922 (AMT24, JR303)
Cruise period2014-09-22 — 2014-11-01
StatusCompleted
Port of departureImmingham, United Kingdom
Port of returnStanley, Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesThe overall aim of the Atlantic Meridional Transect programme is: to quantify key biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and their inherent variability over extended time and spatial scales in the Atlantic Ocean. This is achieved by executing an annually repeated meridional transect through contrasting oceanic provinces, ranging from oligotrophic deserts, to highly productive shelf seas.

The specific objectives of AMT are:
- To quantify the nature and causes of ecological and biogeochemical variability in planktonic ecosystems;
- To quantify the effects of this variability on nutrient cycling, on biogenic export and on air-sea exchange of climate active gases;
- To construct multi-decadal, multidisciplinary ocean time-series which are integrated within a wider “Pole-to-pole” observatory concept;
- To provide essential sea-truth validation for current and next generation satellite missions;
- To provide essential data for global ecosystem model development and validation;
- To provide a valuable, highly sought after and unique training arena for the next generation of UK and International oceanographers.
Chief scientistTim Smyth (Plymouth Marine Laboratory)
ProjectAtlantic Meridional Transect (AMT)
Coordinating bodyNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Cruise reportRRS James Clark Ross JR20140922 (AMT24, JR303) cruise report jr303.pdf (3.69 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralAtlantic Ocean
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway data from the ship’s navigation, bathymetry, surface and meteorological instrumentation.
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, total backscattering, acidified backscattering, acid-labile backscattering, temperature, salinity, absorbtion and attenuation from the ship’s non-toxic supply
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: CTD profiles (salinity, temperature, oxygen concentration, fluorescence, transmittance, down-welling PAR, backscatter).
Transparency (eg transmissometer)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway data from the ship’s navigation, bathymetry, surface and meteorological instrumentation.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Optical measurements of the ship’s seawater supply (beam attenuation, backscattering and absorption coefficients). Measurements taken once per minute.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Optical measurements (beam attenuation, backscattering and absorption coefficients)
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, total backscattering, acidified backscattering, acid-labile backscattering, temperature, salinity, absorbtion and attenuation from the ship’s non-toxic supply
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Optical measurements of surface water (remote-sensing reflectance). Measurements taken once per minute.
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 27
Description: Dissolved oxygen concentration in seawater
OxygenQuantity: number of samples = 7
Description: Gross Primary Production (GPP), Dark Community Respiration (DCR) and Net Community Production
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 21
Description: Gross Primary Production (GPP), Dark Community Respiration (DCR) and Net Community Production
Carbon dioxideQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Carbon dioxide partial pressure in water and air
Other dissolved gasesQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Discrete N2O, CH4 samples collected from each CTD cast.
PhosphateQuantity: number of samples = 13
Description: Assessments of bacterioplankton photoheterotrophy in the surface mixed layer was done at selected 1-2 depths at 23 stations.
PhosphateQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Micro-molar nutrients (nitrate+nitrite, nitrite, phosphate and silicate) from all depths of the CTD profile. Measurements made by colourimetric auto-analysis.
NitrateQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Micro-molar nutrients (nitrate+nitrite, nitrite, phosphate and silicate) from all depths of the CTD profile. Measurements made by colourimetric auto-analysis.
NitriteQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Micro-molar nutrients (nitrate+nitrite, nitrite, phosphate and silicate) from all depths of the CTD profile. Measurements made by colourimetric auto-analysis.
SilicateQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Micro-molar nutrients (nitrate+nitrite, nitrite, phosphate and silicate) from all depths of the CTD profile. Measurements made by colourimetric auto-analysis.
AlkalinityQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Samples collected for pH (analyzed on-board) and alkalinity (stored).
pHQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Samples collected for pH (analyzed on-board) and alkalinity (stored).
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 27
Description: Deployment on fore deck using Go Flo (20m)
Contamination 
Suspended matterQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Samples collected for determining total suspended solids
Biology and fisheries 
Primary productivityQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Simulated in situ Primary production at % irradiance depths
Primary productivityQuantity: number of stations = 21
Description: Gross Primary Production (GPP), Dark Community Respiration (DCR) and Net Community Production
Primary productivityQuantity: number of samples = 7
Description: Gross Primary Production (GPP), Dark Community Respiration (DCR) and Net Community Production
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Samples collected for determining phytoplankton pigments using high-performance liquid chromatography
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, total backscattering, acidified backscattering, acid-labile backscattering, temperature, salinity, absorbtion and attenuation from the ship’s non-toxic supply
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Discrete chl-a samples collected from each CTD cast for calibration of the CTD fluorometer (9 samples per cast).
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of samples = 132
Description: Discrete chl-a samples collected from the ship’s non-toxic supply for calibration of the Surfmet fluorometer.
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of samples = 132
Description: Discrete samples from the ship’s non-toxic supply for POC, PIC, coccolith enumeration, and biogenic silica
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Discrete samples from varying depths (always including surface and DCM) for POC, PIC, coccolith enumeration, and biogenic silica
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: Samples collected for determining particulate organic carbon
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of samples = 70
Description: Surfactant activity measurements using 797VA Computerace Voltammetry, Chemical Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements using long pathlenght UltraPath Spectrophotometer. Data part of the PhD data.
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of profiles = 69
Description: Surfactant activity measurements using 797VA Computerace Voltammetry, Chemical Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements using long pathlenght UltraPath Spectrophotometer.Data part of the PhD data.
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of samples = 20
Description: Comparison of microbial uptake of leucine in the surface mixed and twilight layers.
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of samples = 13
Description: Assessments of bacterioplankton photoheterotrophy in the surface mixed layer was done at selected 1-2 depths at 23 stations.
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of samples = 70
Description: Surfactant activity measurements using 797VA Computerace Voltammetry, Chemical Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements using long pathlenght UltraPath Spectrophotometer. Data part of the PhD data.
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of profiles = 69
Description: Surfactant activity measurements using 797VA Computerace Voltammetry, Chemical Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) measurements using long pathlenght UltraPath Spectrophotometer.Data part of the PhD data.
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of samples = 20
Description: Comparison of microbial uptake of leucine in the surface mixed and twilight layers.
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of stations = 21
Description: Gross Primary Production (GPP), Dark Community Respiration (DCR) and Net Community Production
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 7
Description: Gross Primary Production (GPP), Dark Community Respiration (DCR) and Net Community Production
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 26
Description: Size fractioning microzooplankton, vertical net tow to 200 m
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Samples collected for culturing of Picoeukaryotes and Synechoccocus. Also for analyses of cyanophages present in the water
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of profiles = 35
Description: Samples collected, filtered and filters kept for genomic analyses of Synechoccocus communities in the water
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of profiles = 70
Description: Quantification of pico- and nanophytoplankton abundance from all depths between the surface and 200m from CTD casts by flow cytometry
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 45
Description: 200 µm bongo zooplankton net, oblique tows between 400 m and 70 m
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 26
Description: Size fractioning microzooplankton, vertical net tow to 200 m
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 27
Description: WP-2 200 µm bongo zooplankton net, vertical hauls, 200 m to surface.
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 47
Description: Horizontal tows for zooplankton using bongo nets (45) and RMT net (2)
Eggs and larvaeQuantity: number of hauls = 28
Description: Vertical bongo net trawls and samples from CTD rosette for copepod nauplii
Pelagic bacteria/micro-organismsQuantity: number of samples = 68
Description: Enumeration of bacterioplankton and smallest unicellular protists at all sampled depths between the surface and 200m from CTD casts by flow cytometry.
Pelagic bacteria/micro-organismsQuantity: number of samples = 27
Description: The effect of ambient iron concentration on microbial dynamics.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 13
Description: Assessments of bacterioplankton photoheterotrophy in the surface mixed layer was done at selected 1-2 depths at 23 stations.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 27
Description: The effect of ambient iron concentration on microbial dynamics.
Meteorology 
Incident radiationQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway measurements of total upwelling radiance, downwelling sky radiance, and total downwelling irradiance
Incident radiationQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Hyperspectral total and diffuse irradiance measurements using prototype instruments.
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway data from the ship’s navigation, bathymetry, surface and meteorological instrumentation.
Atmospheric chemistryQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Atmospheric aerosol measurements using a handheld sun photometer. Data part of the NASA AERONET Maritime Aerosol Network.
Other meteorological measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Atmospheric aerosol measurements using a handheld sun photometer. Data part of the NASA AERONET Maritime Aerosol Network.
Geology and geophysics 
Single-beam echosoundingQuantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Continuous underway data from the ship’s navigation, bathymetry, surface and meteorological instrumentation.
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed May 2014) on 18 September 2014
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring deployed on 19 September 2014.
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed October 2012) on 19 September 2014.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)10° 45' 0" N  27° 10' 59" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 005)
Optics (eg underwater light levels)14° 13' 0" N  27° 53' 59" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 004)
Optics (eg underwater light levels)35° 47' 59" S  27° 52' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 009)
Optics (eg underwater light levels)22° 18' 0" S  25° 3' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 007)
Optics (eg underwater light levels)38° 57' 0" S  26° 10' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 013)
Current meters18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring deployed on 19 September 2014.
Current meters18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed May 2014) on 18 September 2014
Current meters18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed October 2012) on 19 September 2014.
Surface drifters/drifting buoys45° 16' 59" S  42° 10' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7017
Surface drifters/drifting buoys22° 18' 0" S  25° 3' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 007)
Surface drifters/drifting buoys38° 58' 0" S  29° 10' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7031
Surface drifters/drifting buoys42° 4' 59" S  35° 6' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7032
Surface drifters/drifting buoys25° 36' 0" S  25° 1' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7000
Surface drifters/drifting buoys22° 19' 0" S  25° 4' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #6999
Surface drifters/drifting buoys16° 7' 59" S  25° 4' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #6998
Surface drifters/drifting buoys38° 57' 0" S  26° 10' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 013)
Surface drifters/drifting buoys48° 15' 0" S  50° 19' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7016
Surface drifters/drifting buoys49° 34' 59" S  53° 4' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7015
Surface drifters/drifting buoys14° 13' 0" N  27° 53' 59" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 004)
Surface drifters/drifting buoys10° 45' 0" N  27° 10' 59" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 005)
Surface drifters/drifting buoys35° 47' 59" S  27° 52' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 009)
Other physical oceanographic measurements10° 45' 0" N  27° 10' 59" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 005)
Other physical oceanographic measurements14° 13' 0" N  27° 53' 59" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 004)
Other physical oceanographic measurements49° 34' 59" S  53° 4' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7015
Other physical oceanographic measurements48° 15' 0" S  50° 19' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7016
Other physical oceanographic measurements45° 16' 59" S  42° 10' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7017
Other physical oceanographic measurements38° 58' 0" S  29° 10' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7031
Other physical oceanographic measurements25° 36' 0" S  25° 1' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7000
Other physical oceanographic measurements22° 19' 0" S  25° 4' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #6999
Other physical oceanographic measurements16° 7' 59" S  25° 4' 59" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #6998
Other physical oceanographic measurements42° 4' 59" S  35° 6' 0" W — Apex Argo Float. Temperature and salinity with depth. Performing vertical profile every 10 days. UK Met Office. #7032
Other physical oceanographic measurements22° 18' 0" S  25° 3' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 007)
Other physical oceanographic measurements38° 57' 0" S  26° 10' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 013)
Other physical oceanographic measurements35° 47' 59" S  27° 52' 0" W — Bio-Argo Float. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorescence, backscatter, irradiance with depth. Performing vertical profile every X days. PML (#METBIO 009)
Biology and fisheries 
Sediment traps18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring deployed on 19 September 2014.
Sediment traps18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed May 2014) on 18 September 2014
Sediment traps18° 30' 0" S  25° 0' 0" W — Southern Oligotrophic Gyre mooring, PI. Richard Lampitt (NOC). Two suspended sediment traps together with associated current meters and suspended CTD. Mooring recovered (deployed October 2012) on 19 September 2014.
Data held at BODC Get data
Discrete samples 
70  CTD frame plus rosette samplerChlorophyll pigment concentrations in water bodies
Phytoplankton taxonomic abundance in water bodies
Silicate concentration parameters in the water column
Salinity of the water column
Plankton abundance per unit volume of the water column
Nitrate concentration parameters in the water column
Phosphate concentration parameters in the water column
Dissolved oxygen parameters in the water column
Nitrite concentration parameters in the water column
8  Drifting Buoy
5  Metocean Argos Drifting Buoy
123  Optical instruments
2  RMT multiple zooplankton net tow
106  Sample taken from ship's non-toxic supplyChlorophyll pigment concentrations in water bodies
Phytoplankton taxonomic abundance in water bodies
Salinity of the water column
72  Twin WP-2 net mounted on a frame
55  Unspecified zooplankton net or nets
27  Water bottle hydrocast
67