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RRS Discovery DY096

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS Discovery (74EQ)
Cruise identifierDY096
Cruise period2018-11-28 — 2018-12-14
StatusCompleted
Port of departurePunta Arenas, Chile
Port of returnPunta Arenas, Chile
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesThe CUSTARD project will examine how seasonal changes in nutrient availability for phytoplankton, at a key junction of the global ocean circulation, influence how long carbon is trapped in the ocean rather than escape to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
If we want to understand the role of the Southern Ocean in regulating global climate we need to understand both how much carbon is used to make phytoplankton at the ocean surface and how deep this material penetrates into the ocean interior; the 'remineralisation depth'. The objective of CUSTARD is to make new observations of the remineralisation depth and its controls in an important, yet remote, region of the Southern Ocean, using a combination of gliders, a mooring, sophisticated new sensors and a process cruise. The observations will be combined with modelling to determine the key processes regulating carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean.
DY096 marked the start of one year of observations by CUSTARD. Cruise objectives included the deployment of a surface mooring and two gliders to make observations throughout the year until they would be retrieved on a cruise at the start of 2020. Immediately prior to the recovery cruise, a process cruise is planned. For DY096 the surface mooring was provided and deployed by a team from WHOI as part of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative. The mooring had also been adapted by WHOI to integrate novel NOC lab-on-a-chip nitrate and silicate sensors. Another aim was to recover the surface mooring already at the site, now into its third year after recovery was not possible in 2017, and the lower parts of two subsurface moorings, all parts of the original OOI array. These deployments and recoveries were the priorities together with the collection of observations to calibrate the sensors on mooring and gliders. If further iron and optical particulate data could be obtained it would also be very useful to inform planning for the 2019 process cruise.
Weather, swell and a ship issue restricted time on site to 102 hours of which conditions were suitable to deploy/recover equipment over the side for just 61 hours, out of a 16-day cruise. Nevertheless, all of the priorities were achieved. It was also possible to collect some limited samples for iron concentrations but not to collect any standalone optical particulate observations.
Chief scientistAdrian P Martin (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)
Cruise reportRRS Discovery DY096 cruise report dy096.pdf (9.34 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralSouth East Pacific Ocean (limit 140W)
Southern Ocean
Track chartsRRS Discovery DY096 cruise track — dy096trk.pdf (0.11 MB) 
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: Water samples taken from non-toxic supply.Samples taken every 6 hours for salinity, nutrients, DIC. Samples taken every 2 hours for chlorophyll. Electronic measurements of T and S were also recorded
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
Transparency (eg transmissometer)Quantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: VMADCP data (to be calibrated)
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
PhosphateQuantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: Water samples taken from non-toxic supply.Samples taken every 6 hours for salinity, nutrients, DIC. Samples taken every 2 hours for chlorophyll. Electronic measurements of T and S were also recorded
PhosphateQuantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
NitrateQuantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: Water samples taken from non-toxic supply.Samples taken every 6 hours for salinity, nutrients, DIC. Samples taken every 2 hours for chlorophyll. Electronic measurements of T and S were also recorded
NitrateQuantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
SilicateQuantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
SilicateQuantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: Water samples taken from non-toxic supply.Samples taken every 6 hours for salinity, nutrients, DIC. Samples taken every 2 hours for chlorophyll. Electronic measurements of T and S were also recorded
Trace elementsQuantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
Trace elementsQuantity: number of samples = 4
Description: Samples taken from OTE-Flo bottles deployed individually on Kevlar wire for trace metal analysis: 4 bottles in total
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: Water samples taken from non-toxic supply.Samples taken every 6 hours for salinity, nutrients, DIC. Samples taken every 2 hours for chlorophyll. Electronic measurements of T and S were also recorded
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 5
Description: Samples taken from each of 12 bottles for salinity, nutrients, DIC, chlorophyll, HPLC, POC, PON, BSi. Samples were taken from a single CTD cast for trace metal analysis. Electronic measurements taken by sensors on CTD: CTD, oxygen, backscatter, transmission, fluorometer
Meteorology 
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 16
Description: Routine standard measurements
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
Transparency (eg transmissometer)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Transparency (eg transmissometer)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — Two Slocum gliders (398 - Churchill; 404 - Pancake). BBFLSv9 twin backscatter, WetLab puck, Aanderaa optode. Seabird CTD
Transparency (eg transmissometer)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate
Transparency (eg transmissometer)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Optics (eg underwater light levels)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Current meters54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Current profiler (eg ADCP)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate
Other physical oceanographic measurements54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — Two Slocum gliders (398 - Churchill; 404 - Pancake). BBFLSv9 twin backscatter, WetLab puck, Aanderaa optode. Seabird CTD
Other physical oceanographic measurements54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Other physical oceanographic measurements54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Chemical oceanography 
Oxygen54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate
Oxygen54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — Two Slocum gliders (398 - Churchill; 404 - Pancake). BBFLSv9 twin backscatter, WetLab puck, Aanderaa optode. Seabird CTD
Oxygen54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Oxygen54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Carbon dioxide54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Carbon dioxide54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate
Carbon dioxide54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Nitrate54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate
Nitrate54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — Data from NOC silicate and nitrate Lab-on-Chip sensors integrated into OOI SUMO-4 mooring in the NSIF at 12m depth
Nitrate54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Silicate54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — Data from NOC silicate and nitrate Lab-on-Chip sensors integrated into OOI SUMO-4 mooring in the NSIF at 12m depth
pH54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — Two Slocum gliders (398 - Churchill; 404 - Pancake). BBFLSv9 twin backscatter, WetLab puck, Aanderaa optode. Seabird CTD
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected on the mooring wire: CTD, pH at 20m, 2-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, 700 m backscatter), Dissolved Oxygen and pCO2 at 40, 80 and 130m, ADCP at 500m.
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at 12 m on the Near Surface Instrument Frame (NSIF): CTD, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate, pCO2, Water velocity, Spectral Irradiance
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)54° 24' 25" S  89° 12' 21" W — OOI SUMO-04 mooring data (available real-time from OOI webpage). Collected at surface: CT, pCO2, Dissolved Oxygen, 3-channel Fluorescence (Chl a, CDOM, 700 m backscatter), Optical Attenuation and Absorption, Nitrate