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RRS James Clark Ross JR18004

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR18004
Cruise period2019-01-06 — 2019-02-17
StatusCompleted
Port of departurePunta Arenas, Chile
Port of returnPunta Arenas, Chile
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesThe cruise formed part of the ORCHESTRA project, with the work falling into two main work packages. These were the recovery and turnaround of eight moorings in and around Orkney Passage in the southern Scotia Sea, a key constriction for the northern transport of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Weddell Sea to the Scotia Sea. Alongside the mooring turnarounds, a number of CTD and VMP casts were also undertaken. The second work package involved a comprehensive study of Discovery Bank, a significant region of underwater bathymetry to the west of Orkney Passage, where previous literature (Meredith et al., 2015) implies that a Taylor column circulation retains and mixes waters exiting from the Weddell Sea into the Scotia Sea. The study involved a comprehensive CTD and VMP survey, the deployment of a Slocum underwater glider for a 2-3 month mission, and the deployment of 2 EM-Apex profiling floats, which incorporate velocity measurements alongside the standard Argo parameters.

Owing to a medical evacuation at South Georgia, the science was done in two parts. An initial mooring recovery and turnaround was done on 13th January, whilst the remaining science was completed between 26th January and 11th February. There were brief port calls at King Edward Point and Signy, and the ship demobilised in Punta Arenas on 17th February.
Chief scientistJ Alexander Brearley (British Antarctic Survey)
ProjectOcean Regulation of Climate by Heat and Carbon Sequestration and Transports (ORCHESTRA)
Cruise reportRRS James Clark Ross JR18004 cruise report jr18004.pdf (23.68 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralSouthern Ocean
SpecificDrake Passage, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea.
Track chartsRRS James Clark Ross JR18004 cruise track — jr18004trk.pdf (0.11 MB) 
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 40
Description: Routine underway measurements of temperature, salinity, transparency, and chlorophyll fluorescence
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 62
Description: CTD casts, using Sea-Bird Electronics 9+ with dual temperature/conductivity sensors, dissolved oxygen, transmissometer, fluorometer, PAR sensor. Downward- and upward-looking 300-kHz lowered ADCPs were used on all 62 stations. Six casts were performed on station 62 (while the ship was moving slowly), giving 67 casts in total.
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 31
Description: Vertical microstructure profiler casts using one of two untethered VMP-6000 instruments manufactured by Rockland Scientific.
Transparency (eg transmissometer)Quantity: number of stations = 62
Description: CTD casts, using Sea-Bird Electronics 9+ with dual temperature/conductivity sensors, dissolved oxygen, transmissometer, fluorometer, PAR sensor. Downward- and upward-looking 300-kHz lowered ADCPs were used on all 62 stations. Six casts were performed on station 62 (while the ship was moving slowly), giving 67 casts in total.
Transparency (eg transmissometer)Quantity: activity duration in days = 40
Description: Routine underway measurements of temperature, salinity, transparency, and chlorophyll fluorescence
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: number of stations = 62
Description: CTD casts, using Sea-Bird Electronics 9+ with dual temperature/conductivity sensors, dissolved oxygen, transmissometer, fluorometer, PAR sensor. Downward- and upward-looking 300-kHz lowered ADCPs were used on all 62 stations. Six casts were performed on station 62 (while the ship was moving slowly), giving 67 casts in total.
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of stations = 62
Description: CTD casts, using Sea-Bird Electronics 9+ with dual temperature/conductivity sensors, dissolved oxygen, transmissometer, fluorometer, PAR sensor. Downward- and upward-looking 300-kHz lowered ADCPs were used on all 62 stations. Six casts were performed on station 62 (while the ship was moving slowly), giving 67 casts in total.
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: activity duration in days = 36
Description: Current profiles from vessel-mounted ADCP
Other physical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of profiles = 31
Description: Vertical microstructure profiler casts using one of two untethered VMP-6000 instruments manufactured by Rockland Scientific.
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 62
Description: CTD casts, using Sea-Bird Electronics 9+ with dual temperature/conductivity sensors, dissolved oxygen, transmissometer, fluorometer, PAR sensor. Downward- and upward-looking 300-kHz lowered ADCPs were used on all 62 stations. Six casts were performed on station 62 (while the ship was moving slowly), giving 67 casts in total.
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: activity duration in days = 40
Description: Routine underway measurements of temperature, salinity, transparency, and chlorophyll fluorescence
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of stations = 62
Description: CTD casts, using Sea-Bird Electronics 9+ with dual temperature/conductivity sensors, dissolved oxygen, transmissometer, fluorometer, PAR sensor. Downward- and upward-looking 300-kHz lowered ADCPs were used on all 62 stations. Six casts were performed on station 62 (while the ship was moving slowly), giving 67 casts in total.
Meteorology 
Incident radiationQuantity: activity duration in days = 40
Description: Routine meteorological measurements of temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure, and solar radiation
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 40
Description: Routine meteorological measurements of temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure, and solar radiation
Geology and geophysics 
Single-beam echosoundingQuantity: activity duration in days = 40
Description: Single-beam echo sounding, using 12-kHz Kongsberg EA600 echo sounder (running in passive mode using ping from EM122 multi-beam echo sounder for most of the cruise)
Multi-beam echosoundingQuantity: activity duration in days = 18
Description: Multi-beam echo sounding, using 12-kHz Kongsberg EM122 echo sounder. Although the echo sounder was run near continuously between 14/01/2019 and 14/02/2019, only around 18 days of full swath data were actually logged as many of the areas visited were already well-swathed. During the full time, centre-beam depths were logged.
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements60° 24' 47" S  35° 18' 53" W — Deployed EM-APEX profiling float 8135 on 2 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a maximum depth of up to 2000m.
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements60° 39' 33" S  37° 47' 14" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 352 on 7 Feb 2019, recovered on 8 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and microstructure. Recovered due to serious hardware and software issues, so no data to be archived.
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements60° 6' 57" S  37° 2' 9" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 631 on 2 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). To be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements60° 42' 0" S  37° 29' 59" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 400 on 1 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). No communications since 1 Feb; if communications are re-established, will be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements60° 51' 0" S  37° 12' 0" W — Deployed EM-APEX profiling float 8136 on 1 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a maximum depth of up to 2000m.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)60° 6' 57" S  37° 2' 9" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 631 on 2 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). To be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Optics (eg underwater light levels)60° 42' 0" S  37° 29' 59" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 400 on 1 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). No communications since 1 Feb; if communications are re-established, will be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Current meters60° 38' 42" S  42° 10' 47" W — Recovered OP2 mooring on 27 Jan 2019; deployed 18 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1530m and 3040m.
Current meters60° 35' 24" S  41° 49' 36" W — Recovered OP4 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 21 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1840m and 2930m.
Current meters60° 37' 59" S  42° 5' 6" W — Recovered OP1 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 18 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1870m and 3630m.
Current meters60° 39' 24" S  42° 13' 47" W — Deployed OP3 mooring on 10 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1240m and 1740m.
Current meters60° 39' 24" S  42° 13' 47" W — Recovered OP3 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 19 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1230m and 1720m.
Current meters62° 36' 47" S  43° 14' 24" W — Deployed M2 mooring on 13 Jan 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 2540m and 3040m.
Current meters60° 38' 30" S  42° 10' 12" W — Deployed OP2 mooring on 28 Jan 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1580m and 3090m.
Current meters60° 33' 47" S  41° 37' 59" W — Recovered OP6 mooring on 30 Jan 2019; deployed 20 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1910m and 2300m.
Current meters63° 31' 54" S  41° 46' 5" W — Deployed M3 mooring on 26 Jan 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 4040m and 4550m.
Current meters60° 37' 36" S  42° 5' 30" W — Deployed OP1 mooring on 10 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1820m and 3630m.
Current meters62° 36' 54" S  43° 14' 30" W — Recovered M2 mooring on 13 Jan 2019; deployed 24 Mar 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 2540m and 3040m.
Current meters60° 35' 24" S  41° 49' 47" W — Deployed OP4 mooring on 9 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1840m and 2940m.
Current meters60° 36' 42" S  41° 58' 30" W — Recovered OP5 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 19 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 2980m and 3370m.
Current meters60° 36' 24" S  41° 58' 36" W — Deployed OP5 mooring on 9 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 3000m and 3390m.
Current meters63° 31' 59" S  41° 46' 18" W — Recovered M3 mooring on 26 Jan 2019; deployed 24 Mar 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 4050m and 4540m.
Current meters60° 33' 53" S  41° 37' 59" W — Deployed OP6 mooring on 9 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1910m and 2300m.
Current profiler (eg ADCP)60° 24' 47" S  35° 18' 53" W — Deployed EM-APEX profiling float 8135 on 2 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a maximum depth of up to 2000m.
Current profiler (eg ADCP)60° 51' 0" S  37° 12' 0" W — Deployed EM-APEX profiling float 8136 on 1 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a maximum depth of up to 2000m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 39' 33" S  37° 47' 14" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 352 on 7 Feb 2019, recovered on 8 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and microstructure. Recovered due to serious hardware and software issues, so no data to be archived.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 42' 0" S  37° 29' 59" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 400 on 1 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). No communications since 1 Feb; if communications are re-established, will be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 6' 57" S  37° 2' 9" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 631 on 2 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). To be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Other physical oceanographic measurements63° 31' 54" S  41° 46' 5" W — Deployed M3 mooring on 26 Jan 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 4040m and 4550m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements62° 36' 47" S  43° 14' 24" W — Deployed M2 mooring on 13 Jan 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 2540m and 3040m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 33' 53" S  41° 37' 59" W — Deployed OP6 mooring on 9 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1910m and 2300m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 36' 24" S  41° 58' 36" W — Deployed OP5 mooring on 9 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 3000m and 3390m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 35' 24" S  41° 49' 47" W — Deployed OP4 mooring on 9 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1840m and 2940m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 39' 24" S  42° 13' 47" W — Deployed OP3 mooring on 10 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1240m and 1740m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 38' 30" S  42° 10' 12" W — Deployed OP2 mooring on 28 Jan 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1580m and 3090m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 37' 36" S  42° 5' 30" W — Deployed OP1 mooring on 10 Feb 2019. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1820m and 3630m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements63° 31' 59" S  41° 46' 18" W — Recovered M3 mooring on 26 Jan 2019; deployed 24 Mar 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 4050m and 4540m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements62° 36' 54" S  43° 14' 30" W — Recovered M2 mooring on 13 Jan 2019; deployed 24 Mar 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 2540m and 3040m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 33' 47" S  41° 37' 59" W — Recovered OP6 mooring on 30 Jan 2019; deployed 20 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1910m and 2300m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 36' 42" S  41° 58' 30" W — Recovered OP5 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 19 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 2980m and 3370m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 39' 24" S  42° 13' 47" W — Recovered OP3 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 19 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1230m and 1720m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 38' 42" S  42° 10' 47" W — Recovered OP2 mooring on 27 Jan 2019; deployed 18 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1530m and 3040m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 37' 59" S  42° 5' 6" W — Recovered OP1 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 18 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1870m and 3630m.
Other physical oceanographic measurements60° 35' 24" S  41° 49' 36" W — Recovered OP4 mooring on 29 Jan 2019; deployed 21 Apr 2017 on JR16005. Measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure and water velocity at a variety of depths between 1840m and 2930m.
Chemical oceanography 
Oxygen60° 6' 57" S  37° 2' 9" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 631 on 2 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). To be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Oxygen60° 42' 0" S  37° 29' 59" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 400 on 1 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). No communications since 1 Feb; if communications are re-established, will be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)60° 6' 57" S  37° 2' 9" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 631 on 2 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). To be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)60° 42' 0" S  37° 29' 59" W — Deployed Slocum deep 1000m glider 400 on 1 Feb 2019, incorporating measurements of temperature, salinity, pressure, backscatter, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). No communications since 1 Feb; if communications are re-established, will be recovered and data downloaded on JR18005.