Resources

RRS James Clark Ross JR19002

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR19002
Cruise period2020-01-13 — 2020-02-04
StatusCompleted
Port of departureRothera, Antarctica
Port of returnStanley, Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesJR19002 on the RRS James Clark Ross integrated science from four funded programs, three CASS programs and several bolt-on collaboration projects. The work on board started in Sheldon Cove, Rothera, following base resupply and the laying of a mooring for the RaTS project (Mark Barham, BAS). The main components of the expedition were the final legs of the ICEBERGS and RACETRAX programs reoccupying the west Antarctic Peninsula fjord sites in Sheldon Cove (Rothera, Adelaide Island), Börgen Bay (Anvers Island) and Marian Cove (King George Island) sampled in 2017 and 2018. For the first time, small boat work was undertaken as part of ICEBERGS and RACETRAX in all three fjords. ICEBERGS is a 3 year NERC-CONICYT funded grant to University of Concepción (Chile), University of Exeter, Bangor University and BAS. The project aims to better understand through quantitative sampling the effects of glacial retreat on marine biological systems. The DEEP IMPACT project (Dr Dave Barnes) seeks to quantify iceberg scouring frequency below diving depths and a bathymetric survey for this project was undertaken in Sheldon Cove at the start of the cruise. In the early stages of preparation, the RACETRAX project, written to integrate into ICEBERGS, was awarded to Dr Amber Annett (University of Southampton), further diversifying the scope of ICEBERGS. The RACETRAX project aims to identify and characterise the nutrient mineral availability and origins in each of the fjord systems. Two CASS projects were linked to the RACETRAX project on JR19002: AEROBICS, an investigation of Antarctic eukaryotic adaptations and response to oxygen in benthic interstitial communities (Dr Mehul Vora), and FAnFARE, a project to generate the first direct measurements of sedimentary Fe flux along the west Antarctic Peninsula using the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium method (Oliver Flanagan). An additional CASS project (Dr Carmen Falagan-Rodriguez) linked to ICEBERGS investigated the response of the microbiology of Antarctic fjords to freshwater flux and likely microbiological responses to increases in freshwater associated with ongoing deglaciation.

Several small self-funded projects completed the diverse science conducted on board. A continuation of the microplastics project (from filtered water and sediment cores) was undertaken by Tristyn Garza on behalf of Dr Alexis Janosik (University of West Florida). Julian Bloemenroeder (University of Hull) sampled meiofauna from recovered multicores to investigate the physiological impact of internal microplastics within key species. Professor Mark Furze continued the micropalaeontological sampling undertaken in 2017 and 2018 on behalf of Dr Anna Pieńkowski (University Centre on Svalbard). Tobias Ehmen (University of Exeter) undertook an investigation of the seismic oceanography of the fjord systems, following calibration of the EK80 multibeam at Börgen Bay, linked to the research on turbulence by his PhD supervisor Katy Sheen who sailed in 2017 and 2018. Felipe Salas de Freitas (University of Bristol) investigated the oxygen profiles of recovered multicores on behalf of the ICEBERGS team.

The cruise ended with continuation of the marine bathymetric survey and benthic sampling along the Burdwood Bank initiated in 2018 as part of a Darwin Plus funded project involving the South Atlantic Environment Research institute (SAERI) and British Antarctic Survey (BAS). The aim was to gather data to help inform management decisions regarding Falkland Island Government marine spatial planning. The two expert marine geophysical scientists on board as part of the ICEBERGS program were key in maximising the data quality collected over the limited time of the survey.
Chief scientistJames Scourse (University of Exeter, Centre for Geography, Environment and Society)
ProjectImpacts of deglaciation on benthic marine ecosystems in Antarctica (ICEBERGS)
Coordinating bodyNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Cruise reportRRS James Clark Ross JR19002 cruise report jr19002.pdf (33.88 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralSouthern Ocean
Unknown
SpecificScotia Sea, Bellingshausen Sea
Track chartsRRS James Clark Ross JR19002 cruise track — jr19002trk.pdf (0.45 MB) 
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 36
Description: Underway data - oceanlogger. Underway temperature, salinity, fluorescence, conductivity, sound speed, barometer, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 69
Description: Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD). Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth and fluorescence
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 36
Description: Underway Water samples. To look at salinity and conductivity changes
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 36
Description: Underway data - oceanlogger. Underway temperature, salinity, fluorescence, conductivity, sound speed, barometer, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: activity duration in days = 36
Description: VMADCP. Used to look at changes in salinity and temperature in the water column
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of deployments = 63
Description: Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (LADCP). Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank
Neutrally buoyant floatsQuantity: number of deployments = 2
Description: Argo Float
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
Total - NQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
SilicateQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
IsotopesQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
IsotopesQuantity: number of stations = 39
Description: Water samples from small boat. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove
Contamination 
Suspended matterQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
Trace metalsQuantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
Trace metalsQuantity: number of stations = 39
Description: Water samples from small boat. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 68
Description: CTD Bottle samples. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Water samples were analysed for chlorophyll concentration, salinity, conductivity, oxygen isotope concentration, Radium -used a s a proxi to track the amount of sediments in the water column, suspended matter and nutrients including nitrogen and Silicates
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 27
Description: N70 Plankton Net. To look at microplastics in the biota. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of deployments = 8
Description: Agassiz Trawl. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. To look at the biodiversity
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of image series = 43
Description: SUCS. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. To look at the biodiversity
MolluscsQuantity: number of deployments = 8
Description: Agassiz Trawl. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. To look at the biodiversity
MolluscsQuantity: number of image series = 43
Description: SUCS. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. To look at the biodiversity
CrustaceansQuantity: number of deployments = 8
Description: Agassiz Trawl. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. To look at the biodiversity
CrustaceansQuantity: number of image series = 43
Description: SUCS. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. To look at the biodiversity
Acoustic reflection on marine organisms.Quantity: activity duration in days = 23
Description: EK80. Used in oceanography to monitor the value of salinity and temperature in the water column
Geology and geophysics 
GrabQuantity: number of hauls = 16
Description: Hamon Grab. Deployments: Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank. Samples collected to look at the changes in the different species because of retreating glacier, looking at benthos
GrabQuantity: number of hauls = 42
Description: Van Veen grab. 34 successful deployments. Used to look at the sediment particle size
Core - soft bottomQuantity: number of cores = 56
Description: Multicorer. (8 unsuccessful deployments). Samples are analysed for sample chronology, microbiology, environmental DNA, DNA and RNA studies, chemical composition of sediments, oxygen concentration, sediment particle sizes, microplastics, pore water is analysed for Ra concentration.
Multi-beam echosoundingQuantity: number of surveys = 9
Description: EM122. Sites: Sheldon Cove, Börgen Bay, Marian Cove and Burdwood Bank
Single channel seismic reflectionQuantity: activity duration in days = 3
Description: TOPAS. Sites: Burdwood Bank
Other geological/geophysical measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 23
Description: EK80. Used in oceanography to monitor the value of salinity and temperature in the water column
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
CTD stations67° 34' 0" S  68° 9' 21" W — Mooring deployed on 12/01/2020. Instrumentation comprised of 1 x TRDI 75kHz "Long Ranger" ADCP, 1 x TRDI 600kHz ADCP, 1 x McLane Mk78H Sediment Trap, 2 x Seabird SBE-37 Microcat CTDs, 2 x IXSEA AR861 Acoustic Releases. The Long Ranger was configured to measure current speed and direction throughout the water column, split up into 16m "bins", collecting data every 30 minutes. The 600kHz ADCP was configured to measure turbulence, sampling quickly (2Hz) for 5 minutes every hour. The sediment trap is collecting anything that falls through the water column; the sampling bottles are configured to rotate in such a way as to target the spring bloom. The Microcats are measuring temperature, conductivity (salinity) and depth every 5-minutes.
Current profiler (eg ADCP)67° 34' 0" S  68° 9' 21" W — Mooring deployed on 12/01/2020. Instrumentation comprised of 1 x TRDI 75kHz "Long Ranger" ADCP, 1 x TRDI 600kHz ADCP, 1 x McLane Mk78H Sediment Trap, 2 x Seabird SBE-37 Microcat CTDs, 2 x IXSEA AR861 Acoustic Releases. The Long Ranger was configured to measure current speed and direction throughout the water column, split up into 16m "bins", collecting data every 30 minutes. The 600kHz ADCP was configured to measure turbulence, sampling quickly (2Hz) for 5 minutes every hour. The sediment trap is collecting anything that falls through the water column; the sampling bottles are configured to rotate in such a way as to target the spring bloom. The Microcats are measuring temperature, conductivity (salinity) and depth every 5-minutes.
Neutrally buoyant floats66° 41' 20" S  68° 51' 41" W — Argo Float deployed on 19/01/2020. Serial number: 8572
Neutrally buoyant floats67° 16' 40" S  69° 31' 14" W — Argo Float deployed on 18/01/2020. Serial number: 8571
Biology and fisheries 
Sediment traps67° 34' 0" S  68° 9' 21" W — Mooring deployed on 12/01/2020. Instrumentation comprised of 1 x TRDI 75kHz "Long Ranger" ADCP, 1 x TRDI 600kHz ADCP, 1 x McLane Mk78H Sediment Trap, 2 x Seabird SBE-37 Microcat CTDs, 2 x IXSEA AR861 Acoustic Releases. The Long Ranger was configured to measure current speed and direction throughout the water column, split up into 16m "bins", collecting data every 30 minutes. The 600kHz ADCP was configured to measure turbulence, sampling quickly (2Hz) for 5 minutes every hour. The sediment trap is collecting anything that falls through the water column; the sampling bottles are configured to rotate in such a way as to target the spring bloom. The Microcats are measuring temperature, conductivity (salinity) and depth every 5-minutes.