FS Sonne SO198-1
Cruise summary report
|Ship name (ship code)||FS Sonne (06BE)|
|Cruise period||2008-05-03 — 2008-06-14|
|Port of departure||Singapore, Singapore|
|Port of return||Cigading, Indonesia|
|Objectives||All plate boundaries are divided into segments - pieces of fault that are distinct from one another, separated either by gaps or with different orientations. The maximum size of an earthquake on a fault system is controlled by the degree to which the propagating rupture can cross the boundaries between such segments. A large earthquake may rupture a whole segment of plate boundary, but a great earthquake usually ruptures more than one segment at once. Earthquakes offshore of Sumatra on December 26th 2004 (MW=9.3) and March 28th 2005 (MW=8.7) ruptured, respectively, 1200-1300 km and 300-400 km of the subduction boundary between the Indian-Australian plate and the Burman and Sumatra blocks. Rupture in the 2004 event started at the southern end of the fault segment, and propagated northwards. The observation that the slip did not propagate significantly southwards in December 2004, even though the magnitude of slip was high at the southern end of the rupture strongly suggests a barrier at that place. Maximum slip in the March 2005 earthquake occurred within ~100 km of the barrier between the 2004 and 2005 ruptures, confirming both the physical importance of the barrier, and the loading of the March 2005 rupture zone by the December 2004 earthquake. Cruise SO198-1, from Singapore to Merak between 3rd May and 14th June 2008 is the first of three cruises, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), which will form a coherent set of geophysical observations in the source regions of the 2004 and 2005 great Sumatra earthquakes. Arrays of 50 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed at each of two locations - between the 2004 and 2005 ruptures, and at the southern end of the 2005 rupture - to record shots from a large-capacity airgun array. Approximately 7 days of continuous airgun shooting at 60s interval was completed at each location. 10 OBS were reconfigured for earthquake recording and deployed with a planned retrieval in early 2009. Gravity, Parasound, and swath bathymetry data were recorded continuously while in the permitted area, with magnetic field data recorded throughout the airgun shooting, and 101 XBT casts taken at the OBS deployment locations.|
|Chief scientist||Penny J Barton (University of Cambridge Department of Earth Sciences)|
|Project||UK Sumatra Consortium|
|Cruise report||(8.33 MB)|
|Specific||Indian Ocean, west of Sumatra|
|Track charts||(0.70 MB)|
|Bathythermograph||Quantity: number of profiles = 101|
Description: XBT casts taken at the OBS deployment locations.
|Geology and geophysics|
|Geophysical measurements made at depth||Quantity: number of deployments = 97|
Description: Arrays of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed at each of two locations (50 in area 1, 47 in area 2) to record shots from a large-capacity airgun array. Approximately 7 days of continuous airgun shooting at 60s interval was completed at each location.
|Geophysical measurements made at depth||Quantity: number of deployments = 10|
Description: Ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) reconfigured for earthquake recording and deployed with retrieval planned for early 2009.
|Multi-beam echosounding||Quantity: number of profiles = 2|
Description: Simrad EM120 swath bathymetry in each survey area.
|Gravity measurements||Quantity: activity duration in days = 21|
Description: LaCoste and Romberg marine gravity meter recording continuously in both survey areas.
|Magnetic measurements||Quantity: activity duration in days = 21|
Description: SeaSPY proton precession magnetometer system used to measure the total magnetic field in both survey areas.
|Other geological/geophysical measurements||Quantity: number of profiles = 2|
Description: Parasound sub-bottom profiler used in each survey area.
|Moorings, landers, buoys|
|CTD stations||0° 59' 1" N 97° 34' 50" E — CTD and SVP deployment in ~5480m water depth. Only the acoustic velocity profile required.|
|CTD stations||2° 42' 41" N 94° 45' 41" E — CTD and SVP deployment in ~1930m water depth. Only the acoustic velocity profile required.|