Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1070100


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category CTD or STD cast
Instrument Type
NameCategories
Sea-Bird SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor  dissolved gas sensors
Sea-Bird SBE 911plus CTD  CTD; water temperature sensor; salinity sensor
Sea-Bird SBE 3plus (SBE 3P) temperature sensor  water temperature sensor
Sea-Bird SBE 4C conductivity sensor  salinity sensor
Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka III fluorometer  fluorometers
Instrument Mounting lowered unmanned submersible
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Miguel Morales Maqueda
Originating Organization Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (now National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool)
Processing Status banked
Project(s) Rapid Climate Change Programme
RAPID-WAVE
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier C006
BODC Series Reference 1070100
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2006-08-01 22:58
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) -
Nominal Cycle Interval 2.0 decibars
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 42.82333 N ( 42° 49.4' N )
Longitude 60.77167 W ( 60° 46.3' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.05 to 0.1 n.miles
Minimum Sensor Depth 0.99 m
Maximum Sensor Depth 2682.1 m
Minimum Sensor Height -
Maximum Sensor Height -
Sea Floor Depth -
Sensor Distribution Variable common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth, but this depth varies significantly during the series
Sensor Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
Sea Floor Depth Datum -
 

Parameters

BODC CODE Rank Units Short Title Title
CPHLPM01 1 Milligrams per cubic metre chl-a_water_ISfluor_manufctrcal_sensor1 Concentration of chlorophyll-a {chl-a CAS 479-61-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >unknown phase] by in-situ chlorophyll fluorometer and manufacturer's calibration applied
DOXYSU01 1 Micromoles per litre WC_dissO2_uncalib Concentration of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by Sea-Bird SBE 43 sensor and no calibration against sample data
OXYSSU01 1 Percent O2_Sat_SBE43 Saturation of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} in the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by Sea-Bird SBE 43 sensor and computation from concentration using Benson and Krause algorithm
POTMCV01 1 Degrees Celsius WC_Potemp Potential temperature of the water body by computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm
PRESPR01 1 Decibars Pres_Z Pressure (spatial co-ordinate) exerted by the water body by profiling pressure sensor and corrected to read zero at sea level
PSALCC01 1 Dimensionless P_sal_CTD_calib Practical salinity of the water body by CTD and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm and calibration against independent measurements
SIGTPR01 1 Kilograms per cubic metre SigTheta Sigma-theta of the water body by CTD and computation from salinity and potential temperature using UNESCO algorithm
TEMPCU01 1 Degrees Celsius Uncal_CTD_Temp Temperature of the water body by CTD and NO verification against independent measurements
 

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database

RAPID Cruise D308 CTD Data Quality Report

Dissolved oxygen

Users should note that these data have not been calibrated against discrete samples.

Chlorophyll-a

These data have not been calibrated against discrete samples. The only calibration applied is the manufacturer's coefficients. There are occasional large spikes in this channel, together with frequent negative values in most casts, which have been flagged as suspect/improbable. It is likely that the negative values result where very low concentrations occur, due to error in the calibration applied.


Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."


Narrative Documents

Sea-Bird Dissolved Oxygen Sensor SBE 43 and SBE 43F

The SBE 43 is a dissolved oxygen sensor designed for marine applications. It incorporates a high-performance Clark polarographic membrane with a pump that continuously plumbs water through it, preventing algal growth and the development of anoxic conditions when the sensor is taking measurements.

Two configurations are available: SBE 43 produces a voltage output and can be incorporated with any Sea-Bird CTD that accepts input from a 0-5 volt auxiliary sensor, while the SBE 43F produces a frequency output and can be integrated with an SBE 52-MP (Moored Profiler CTD) or used for OEM applications. The specifications below are common to both.

Specifications

Housing Plastic or titanium
Membrane

0.5 mil- fast response, typical for profile applications

1 mil- slower response, typical for moored applications

Depth rating

600 m (plastic) or 7000 m (titanium)

10500 m titanium housing available on request

Measurement range 120% of surface saturation
Initial accuracy 2% of saturation
Typical stability 0.5% per 1000 h

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet .

RAPID Cruise D308 CTD Instrumentation

CTD unit and auxiliary sensors

The CTD unit was a stainless steel frame with a Sea-Bird Electronics 911plus system with primary and secondary temperature and conductivity sensors.

Sensor Serial number Last calibration date
Digiquartz temperature compensated pressure sensor 94756 15/04/2004
Sea-Bird 4 conductivity sensor (primary) 2407 15/06/2006
Sea-Bird 4 conductivity sensor (secondary) 2450 15/06/2006
Sea-Bird 3 temperature sensor (primary) 4489 11/06/2006
Sea-Bird 3 temperature sensor (secondary) 4490 11/06/2006
Sea-Bird 43 oxygen sensor 0612 24/11/2005
Chelsea Aquatracka III fluorometer 088160 17/11/2004
Chelsea MKII Alphatracka 25cm path Transmissometer 04-4223-001 unknown
WetLabs Back Scatter Sensor BBRTD 169R unknown

The CTD frame also had two self-logging LADCPs attached. Please note, the transmissometer and backscatter channels were discarded from the data set by the data originator and are not available.

Sampling device

The Sea-Bird 24 position carousel was equipped with 10 litre sampling bottles, manufactured by Ocean Test Equipment Inc.

Rig geometry

The pressure sensor was 30 cm below the base of the water bottles, and 119 cm from the top of the bottles.

Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers

The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.

Underwater unit

The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus ) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus , that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.

Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors

The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.

The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.

Additional sensors

Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.

Deck unit or SEARAM

Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus ) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus ) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus .

Specifications

Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:

Parameter Range Initial accuracy Resolution at 24 Hz Response time
Temperature -5 to 35°C 0.001°C 0.0002°C 0.065 sec
Conductivity 0 to 7 S m -1 0.0003 S m -1 0.00004 S m -1 0.065 sec (pumped)
Pressure 0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m) 0.015% of full scale 0.001% of full scale 0.015 sec

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet .

Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka MKIII fluorometer

The Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka MKIII is a logarithmic response fluorometer. Filters are available to enable the instrument to measure chlorophyll, rhodamine, fluorescein and turbidity.

It uses a pulsed (5.5 Hz) xenon light source discharging along two signal paths to eliminate variations in the flashlamp intensity. The reference path measures the intensity of the light source whilst the signal path measures the intensity of the light emitted from the specimen under test. The reference signal and the emitted light signals are then applied to a ratiometric circuit. In this circuit, the ratio of returned signal to reference signal is computed and scaled logarithmically to achieve a wide dynamic range. The logarithmic conversion accuracy is maintained at better than one percent of the reading over the full output range of the instrument.

Two variants of the instrument are available, both manufactured in titanium, capable of operating in depths from shallow water down to 2000 m and 6000 m respectively. The optical characteristics of the instrument in its different detection modes are visible below:

Excitation Chlorophyll a Rhodamine Fluorescein Turbidity
Wavelength (nm) 430 500 485 440 *
Bandwidth (nm) 105 70 22 80 *
Emission Chlorophyll a Rhodamine Fluorescein Turbidity
Wavelength (nm) 685 590 530 440 *
Bandwidth (nm) 30 45 30 80 *

* The wavelengths for the turbidity filters are customer selectable but must be in the range 400 to 700 nm. The same wavelength is used in the excitation path and the emission path.

The instrument measures chlorophyll a, rhodamine and fluorescein with a concentration range of 0.01 µg l -1 to 100 µg l -1 . The concentration range for turbidity is 0.01 to 100 FTU (other wavelengths are available on request).

The instrument accuracy is ± 0.02 µg l -1 (or ± 3% of the reading, whichever is greater) for chlorophyll a, rhodamine and fluorescein. The accuracy for turbidity, over a 0 - 10 FTU range, is ± 0.02 FTU (or ± 3% of the reading, whichever is greater).

Further details are available from the Aquatracka MKIII specification sheet .

RAPID Cruise D308 CTD Processing

Instrumentation and sampling strategy

A total of 20 CTD casts were taken during the cruise. 18 full depth CTD casts and two shallow casts, (C000 and C007) were performed using a stainless steel frame. Rosette bottles were fired at regular intervals throughout most profiles in order to obtain salinity samples for calibration. There were four exceptions to this rule, where no salinity samples were taken. C001 was solely used for the testing of acoustic releases and C007 was aborted at 450 m due to time constraints. C010 was a repeat of C006, but bottles were just used to obtain samples for helium-tritium analysis. Finally, on C013, the CTD frame was used to calibrate Sea-Bird SBE37 MicroCAT instrumentation and no bottle samples were obtained.

Sea-Bird processing

Data processing methodology by the data originator mirrored that carried out on RAPID cruise CD160. The raw CTD files were processed through the Sea-Bird Data Processing software. Binary (.DAT) files were converted to engineering units and ASCII format (.CNV) using the DATCNV program. Subsequently, the following standard Sea-Bird routines were run: filter, align, celltm, loopedit and wildedit (if needed).

Matlab processing

After initial processing using the Sea-Bird software, additional routines were applied in Matlab. Manual despiking of temperature and conductivity was carried out on all of the Sea-Bird processed files. Subsequently, for those casts on which water samples were taken, bottle files were generated containing CTD salinities from the time the bottles were fired. CTD and bottle salinity were plotted with depth, in addition to CTD bottle salinity difference with depth. CTD salinity values were compared with bottle salinity measurements and any outliers were not included in further calculations. Also excluded were bottle salinities where the corresponding CTD temperature or conductivity standard deviations were greater than 0.002 °C or 0.0002 S m -1 , respectively. The bottle salinity values were converted to conductivities and offsets calculated. These offsets were then applied to the corresponding CTD conductivities. Finally, calibrated CTD conductivities were converted to CTD salinities.

There were five casts during the cruise for which salinity bottle samples were not requested (C001, C007, C010, C013) or, if requested, they were not analysed (C015). Sea-Bird primary and secondary salinities for these casts were calibrated using the linear regression formulae:

Primary salinity: S_cal = 0.092785 + 0.997423 * S_or

Secondary salinity: S_cal = 0.010458 + 0.999794 * S_or

where S_cal is the calibrated salinity and S_or is the uncalibrated salinity. These expressions were obtained by linearly regressing all cruise CTD bottle samples against the corresponding salinities. The salinity sensors were so stable during the cruise that these calibration are considered reliable by the Originator.

BODC post-processing and screening

Reformatting

The 2 dB version of the downcast data were converted from Matlab into BODC internal format (QXF) to allow use of in-house visualisation tools. The following table shows how the variables within the original file were mapped to appropriate BODC parameter codes;

Parameter Parameter units Parameter code Number of stations Comments
Pressure dbars PRESPR01 20 Manufacturer's calibration applied
Temperature (primary) °C TEMPCU01 20 -
Salinity (primary) - PSALCC01 20 Calibrated by data originator with discrete salinity samples
Chlorophyll-a mg m -3 CPHLPM01 20 Manufacturer's calibration applied
Dissolved oxygen µmol l -1 DOXYSU01 20 Manufacturer's calibration applied
Sigma-theta - UNESCO SVAN Kg m -3 SIGTPR01 20 Regenerated at BODC using data from primary sensors
Potential Temperature °C POTMCV01 20 Regenerated at BODC using data from primary sensors
Oxygen Saturation % OXYSSU01 20 Regenerated at BODC

Screening

Reformatted CTD data were visually checked using the in-house editor EDSERPLO. Suspect data values were flagged where necessary.There was no obvious difference in quality between the primary and secondary temperature and salinity channels and the secondary channels were dropped from the series.

Banking

Once BODC quality control screening was complete, the CTD downcasts were loaded into BODC's ocean database under the ORACLE Relational Database Management System.

References

RRS Discovery Cruise D308. Report on the recovery and redeployment of RAPID-WAVE moorings and bottom pressure recorders in the North-West Atlantic 24 July - 15 August 2006.


Project Information

Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) Programme

Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) is a £20 million, six-year (2001-2007) programme of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The programme aims to improve our ability to quantify the probability and magnitude of future rapid change in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean's Thermohaline Circulation.

Scientific Objectives

Projects

Overall 38 projects have been funded by the RAPID programme. These include 4 which focus on Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), and 5 international projects jointly funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the Research Council of Norway and NERC.

The RAPID effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for collaborative projects reviewed jointly with the NERC proposals. Three projects were funded by NSF.

A proportion of RAPID funding as been made available for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) as part of NERC's Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI). The SBRI aims to stimulate innovation in the economy by encouraging more high-tech small firms to start up or to develop new research capacities. As a result 4 projects have been funded.


RAPID Western Atlantic Variability Experiment (WAVE)

Introduction

The RAPID WAVE project began in 2004 as an observational component of the U.K Natural Environment Research Council's RAPID Climate Change Programme in the western North Atlantic Ocean. In 2008, funding to continue RAPID WAVE was secured through the continuation programme, RAPID-WATCH, which is due to end in 2014.

The RAPID WAVE team brings together scientists at the National Oceanography Centre in Liverpool. Between 2004 and 2010, the RAPID WAVE team also contributed to the Line W mooring array, joining colleagues from the U.S. Line W is a U.S-led initiative used to monitor the North Atlantic Ocean's deep western boundary current whilst being funded through the U.S National Science Foundation and has been active since October 2001. It brings together scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO). Users of these data are referred to the Line W Project Website for more information.

In 2007, further collaboration was established with scientists at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO). This arrangement was formalised and continues under RAPID-WATCH. Smaller scale collaboration with scientists at the Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia (IEO) during RAPID-WATCH saw additional RAPID WAVE observational work in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. This work commenced in 2009 as part of the RAPID WAVE RAPIDO campaign.

Scientific Rationale

The primary aim of the RAPID WAVE project is to develop an observing system that will identify the propagation of overturning signals, from high to low latitudes, along the western margin of the North Atlantic. It specifically aims to monitor temporal changes in the Deep Western Boundary Current and reveal how coherent the changes are along the slope. Ultimately it is envisaged that this will enable scientists to develop a better understanding of larger-scale overturning circulation in the Atlantic, and its wider impacts on climate.

Fieldwork

The fieldwork aspect of the project was to deploy arrays of Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) and CTD moorings along specified satellite altimeter groundtracks off the eastern continental slope of Canada and the United States. In 2004, fieldwork focused on three array lines. Line A was established heading south west from the Grand Banks, whilst the Line B array ran south east on the continental slope of Nova Scotia. The third line, Line W, was an established hydrographic array on the continental slope of New England, serviced by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI), to which RAPID WAVE contributed BPR instrumentation.

The original intention was that each array would be serviced by a cruise every two years. However, following a very poor return rate of instrumentation during the first servicing cruise of Lines A and B in 2006, this plan was modified significantly, and the decision made to abandon work on Line A. In 2007, additional logistical support from Canada's Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) enabled Line B to be serviced again after just one year of deployment, with a much improved recovery record.

The transition from RAPID to RAPID-WATCH funding marked significant changes to the RAPID WAVE observational system. Line B was abandoned and a joint array with BIO, known as the RAPID Scotia Line, to the south west was developed. This line receives annual servicing by BIO, with cruise participation from the RAPID WAVE team.

The servicing of RAPID WAVE BPRs on Line W remained a biennial activity during the RAPID and RAPID-WATCH programmes.

A small number of BPR deployments have also taken place off the coast of Spain as part of the RAPIDO element of RAPID WAVE.

Instrumentation

Types of instruments and measurements:

Contacts

Collaborator Organisation Project
Prof. Chris M. Hughes National Oceanography Centre, U.K RAPID WAVE
Dr. Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda National Oceanography Centre, U.K RAPID WAVE
Dr. Shane Elipot National Oceanography Centre, U.K RAPID WAVE
Dr. John M. Toole Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S Line W
Dr. Igor Yashayaev Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada -

Data Activity or Cruise Information

Cruise

Cruise Name D308
Departure Date 2006-07-24
Arrival Date 2006-08-15
Principal Scientist(s)Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory)
Ship RRS Discovery

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information

Fixed Station Information

Station NameRAPID WAVE Site B2
CategoryOffshore location
Latitude42° 49.15' N
Longitude60° 46.44' W
Water depth below MSL2714.0 m

RAPID Mooring Site B2

This fixed station forms part of the Line B mooring array located to the east of Halifax, Nova Scotia, deployed as part of the RAPID WAVE project.

Period of collection August 2004 - September 2008

Site occupations

Mooring identifier Mooring type Deployment date Recovery date Parameters measured
B2RL#1 RapidLander 18 Aug 2004    01 Aug 2006 Pressure and temperature
B2LM#1 Line Mooring 19 Aug 2004 01 Aug 2006 Pressure, temperature, conductivity and salinity
B2RL#2 RapidLander 06 Aug 2006 07 Oct 2007 Pressure and temperature
B2RL#3 RapidLander 07 Oct 2007 29 Sep 2008 Pressure and temperature

Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 1040767

Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - CD160 (2) HUD07045 Leg2 (1)


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain