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RRS James Clark Ross JR19001

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR19001
Cruise period2019-11-15 — 2019-12-26
StatusCompleted
Port of departurePunta Arenas, Chile
Port of returnPunta Arenas, Chile
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesPolar Ocean Ecosystem Time Series - Western Core Box

JR19001 was the 24th occupation of the Polar Ocean Ecosystem Time Series Western Core Box (POETS-WCB). The cruise occupied stations within the Scotia Sea, including around the South Orkneys, South Georgia and a transect crossing the polar front to the Falkland Islands. Key objectives of the cruise include:
1) Collection of acoustic, net and oceanographic data around South Georgia - contributing to a 24 year unique time series of mesoscale distribution and abundance of Antarctic krill and other zooplankton and an understanding of their physical environment within the region of South Georgia, South Atlantic (1996 - current). South Georgia is an area of high regional biodiversity, supporting large numbers of endemic and range-edge species. The pelagic ecosystem in this region is extremely productive with intense phytoplankton blooms supporting a rich food web that includes zooplankton, in particular large densities of Antarctic krill, and vertebrate predators (penguins, seals and whales). These data are required to understand the long-term variability in krill biomass at South Georgia and the influences from climatic variability, fishing pressure and predation.
2) Recovery and redeployment of two ocean moorings, one on-shelf mooring at South Georgia to measure krill all year round, and one deep water mooring that collects ocean biogeochemistry measurements. The open ocean sustained observations in the area are carried out as part of the SCOOBIES (SCotia sea Open-Ocean BIological laboratoriES) programme, a NERC National Capability Science (Single) funding (NC-SS) project with a primary purpose to consider the flux of carbon to deep ocean layers as well as monitoring ocean chemistry parameters, particular in relation to ocean acidification. This moored instrumentation complements the WCB surveys by providing year round temporal sampling of environmental conditions and acoustic backscatter.
3) A cross polar front transect and stations to collect mesopelagic fish and micronekton to examine the origin of myctophid fish in the Scotia Sea and investigate pollutants within the southern ocean ecosystem (in particular microplastics).
4) Antarctic krill were caught from the South Orkneys and around South Georgia to examine krill reflectance spectra to support measurements of Antarctic krill from space, and to examine the influence of nanoplastics on krill ecology.
5) Water samples were collected from across the area to sample for coccolithophores and for eDNA from Antarctic icefishes.
6) Foraminifera were collected from nets to estimate their contribution to the biological carbon pump, and their ecology and evolution in high latitudes.

JR19001 combined logistical elements of base relief at the BAS research stations Signy, Bird Island and KEP, followed by science and then a logistics visit to Mare Harbour in the Falkland Islands. The cruise consisted of the following:

South Orkney sampling
1. Net sampling (RMT8 and bongo) for Antartic krill and forminifera
2. Floating sediment trap (24 hour deployment)
3. Four CTDs on an onshore/offshore transect for icefish eDNA

POETS - WCB survey
1. Acoustic survey during daylight hours using multi-frequency (38, 70, 120 & 200 kHz) Simrad EK60 echosounder. Two transects to be run each day during a four day period.
2. Deployment of the CTD at minimum of two stations per night during survey.
3. Continuous operation of underway data logging system (bathymetry, location, sea surface temperature, sea currents, etc.).
4. Net sampling (RMT8 and other zooplankton/micronekton nets) at night-time stations plus target fishing during both night and day to ground-truth acoustic data.
5. Acoustic calibration using standard sphere techniques was undertaken in the Stromness Harbour, a deep-water harbour on the North coast of South Georgia.
6. Recovery of WCB mooring. Download data, refurbish and replace batteries
Chief scientistSophie Fielding (British Antarctic Survey)
ProjectWestern Core Box
Coordinating bodyBritish Antarctic Survey (BAS)
Cruise reportRRS James Clark Ross JR19001 cruise report jr19001.pdf (4.70 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralSouthern Ocean
Unknown
Track chartsRRS James Clark Ross JR19001 cruise track — jr19001trk.pdf (0.62 MB) 
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Underway temperature, salinity, fluorescence, air temperature, wind speed
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Optics (eg underwater light levels)Quantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements 75 kHz
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Chemical oceanography 
IsotopesQuantity: number of hauls = 11
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 25 (RMT25) opening and closing nets (25m), cod-end mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Oblique trawls for zooplankton and fish samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
IsotopesQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 8 (RMT8) opening and closing nets (8m), mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Targeted hauls for Antarctic krill and oblique trawls for zooplankton samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
IsotopesQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Contamination 
Contaminants in organismsQuantity: number of hauls = 11
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 25 (RMT25) opening and closing nets (25m), cod-end mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Oblique trawls for zooplankton and fish samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Contaminants in organismsQuantity: number of deployments = 2
Description: Floating Sediment Trap. Samples were preserved to be analysed for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and nano and microplastics
Contaminants in organismsQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 8 (RMT8) opening and closing nets (8m), mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Targeted hauls for Antarctic krill and oblique trawls for zooplankton samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Other contaminant measurementsQuantity: number of deployments = 2
Description: Floating Sediment Trap. Samples were preserved to be analysed for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and nano and microplastics
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Particulate organic matter (inc POC, PON)Quantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of deployments = 2
Description: Floating Sediment Trap. Samples were preserved to be analysed for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and nano and microplastics
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Sediment trapsQuantity: number of deployments = 2
Description: Floating Sediment Trap. Samples were preserved to be analysed for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and nano and microplastics
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 16
Description: Bongo net, mesh sizes 100µm and 200µm. Sampled for plankton and Foraminifera incubation experiments
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 11
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 25 (RMT25) opening and closing nets (25m), cod-end mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Oblique trawls for zooplankton and fish samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 10
Description: Multiple Opening and Closing Net and Environmental Sampling System (MOCNESS) 9 opening and closing nets, mesh size 0.3mm, in vertical profiles to a depth of 1000m. Sampled for zooplankton and fish.
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 16
Description: Bongo net, mesh sizes 100µm and 200µm. Sampled for plankton and Foraminifera incubation experiments
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 8 (RMT8) opening and closing nets (8m), mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Targeted hauls for Antarctic krill and oblique trawls for zooplankton samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
NektonQuantity: number of hauls = 11
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 25 (RMT25) opening and closing nets (25m), cod-end mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Oblique trawls for zooplankton and fish samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
NektonQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 8 (RMT8) opening and closing nets (8m), mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Targeted hauls for Antarctic krill and oblique trawls for zooplankton samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Eggs and larvaeQuantity: number of hauls = 4
Description: Neuston net, mesh sizes 600µm. Samples were preserved to be analysed for fish larvae.
Eggs and larvaeQuantity: number of hauls = 11
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 25 (RMT25) opening and closing nets (25m), cod-end mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Oblique trawls for zooplankton and fish samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Eggs and larvaeQuantity: number of hauls = 10
Description: Multiple Opening and Closing Net and Environmental Sampling System (MOCNESS) 9 opening and closing nets, mesh size 0.3mm, in vertical profiles to a depth of 1000m. Sampled for zooplankton and fish.
Eggs and larvaeQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 8 (RMT8) opening and closing nets (8m), mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Targeted hauls for Antarctic krill and oblique trawls for zooplankton samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Pelagic fishQuantity: number of hauls = 10
Description: Multiple Opening and Closing Net and Environmental Sampling System (MOCNESS) 9 opening and closing nets, mesh size 0.3mm, in vertical profiles to a depth of 1000m. Sampled for zooplankton and fish.
Pelagic fishQuantity: number of hauls = 22
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 8 (RMT8) opening and closing nets (8m), mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Targeted hauls for Antarctic krill and oblique trawls for zooplankton samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Pelagic fishQuantity: number of hauls = 11
Description: Rectangular Midwater Trawl 25 (RMT25) opening and closing nets (25m), cod-end mesh size 5mm. Two nets each event. Oblique trawls for zooplankton and fish samples. Macrozooplankton sampling, incubation experiments (temperature, acidification, mercury, nanoplastic effects on reproduction success), length frequency and stable isotope analysis
Acoustic reflection on marine organisms.Quantity: activity duration in days = 42
Description: EK60 operating at 38, 70, 120, 200 and 333 kHz. Calibrated at Stromness Harbour, South Georgia
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 46
Description: Underway water samples for phytoplankton and fish DNA
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of profiles = 32
Description: Conductivity-temperature-depth casts recording conductivity, temperature, depth, fluorescence, PAR, lowered ADCP. Discrete Niskin bottle samples for analysis of chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton species, Particulate Organic Matter (POM), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter (H-DOM) and phytoplankton and fish DNA
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
CTD stations52° 47' 55" S  40° 9' 30" W — Site: P3, recovered on 03/12/2019. Instrumentation SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m), SAMI pH meter, Phytoplankton sampler(~300m), PCO2 (~200m)
CTD stations53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, deployed on 10/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP, SoundTrap ST300
CTD stations52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
CTD stations53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, recovered on 07/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP
Current meters52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Current profiler (eg ADCP)52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Current profiler (eg ADCP)53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, deployed on 10/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP, SoundTrap ST300
Current profiler (eg ADCP)53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, recovered on 07/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP
Chemical oceanography 
Oxygen52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Carbon dioxide52° 47' 55" S  40° 9' 30" W — Site: P3, recovered on 03/12/2019. Instrumentation SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m), SAMI pH meter, Phytoplankton sampler(~300m), PCO2 (~200m)
pH52° 47' 55" S  40° 9' 30" W — Site: P3, recovered on 03/12/2019. Instrumentation SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m), SAMI pH meter, Phytoplankton sampler(~300m), PCO2 (~200m)
Other chemical oceanographic measurements52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Biology and fisheries 
Sediment traps52° 47' 55" S  40° 9' 30" W — Site: P3, recovered on 03/12/2019. Instrumentation SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m), SAMI pH meter, Phytoplankton sampler(~300m), PCO2 (~200m)
Sediment traps52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Phytoplankton52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Phytoplankton52° 47' 55" S  40° 9' 30" W — Site: P3, recovered on 03/12/2019. Instrumentation SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m), SAMI pH meter, Phytoplankton sampler(~300m), PCO2 (~200m)
Acoustic reflection on marine organisms.53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, recovered on 07/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP
Acoustic reflection on marine organisms.53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, deployed on 10/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP, SoundTrap ST300
Other biological/fisheries measurement52° 47' 55" S  40° 9' 30" W — Site: P3, recovered on 03/12/2019. Instrumentation SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m), SAMI pH meter, Phytoplankton sampler(~300m), PCO2 (~200m)
Other biological/fisheries measurement52° 48' 28" S  40° 6' 55" W — Site: P3, deployed on 12/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m and ~600m), RDI ADCP (~200m), Seaguard current meter & O2 sensor (~600m and ~2000m), Aquamonitor (~600m), Sediment trap (~2000m),
Other biological/fisheries measurement53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, recovered on 07/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP
Other biological/fisheries measurement53° 47' 52" S  37° 56' 2" W — Site: WCB, deployed on 10/12/2019. Instrumentation: SBE CTD (~200m), SonoVault acoustic listening (~250m), WBAT (120 kHz) echosounder, ADCP, SoundTrap ST300