Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 524197


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Currents -subsurface Eulerian
Instrument Type
NameCategories
SeaTech transmissometer  transmissometers
Aanderaa RCM 7/8 Recording Current Meter  current meters
Instrument Mounting subsurface mooring
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator -
Originating Organization Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (now National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool)
Processing Status banked
Project(s) Provess
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier as11818.799
BODC Series Reference 524197
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 1998-09-10 09:45
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 1998-10-10 23:55
Nominal Cycle Interval 600.0 seconds
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 59.32620 N ( 59° 19.6' N )
Longitude 1.01120 E ( 1° 0.7' E )
Positional Uncertainty 0.1 to 0.5 n.miles
Minimum Sensor Depth 59.0 m
Maximum Sensor Depth 59.0 m
Minimum Sensor Height 51.0 m
Maximum Sensor Height 51.0 m
Sea Floor Depth 110.0 m
Sensor Distribution Sensor fixed, measurements made at fixed depths - The sensor is at a fixed depth, but measurements are made remotely from the sensor over a range of depths (e.g. ADCP measurements)
Sensor Depth Datum Sea floor reference - Depth measured as a height above sea floor but converted into a depth relative to the sea surface according to the same datum as used for sea floor depth (applicable to instrument depths not bathymetric depths)
Sea Floor Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface
 

Parameters

BODC CODE Rank Units Short Title Title
AADYAA01 1 Days Date(Loch_Day) Date (time from 00:00 01/01/1760 to 00:00 UT on day)
AAFDZZ01 1 Days Time(Day_Fract) Time (time between 00:00 UT and timestamp)
ATTNMR01 1 per metre Atten_red Attenuation (red light wavelength) per unit length of the water body by 20 or 25cm path length transmissometer
CNDCPR01 1 Siemens per metre InSituCond Electrical conductivity of the water body by in-situ conductivity cell
LCDAEL01 1 Degrees True CurrDir Current direction (Eulerian) in the water body by in-situ current meter and correction to true North
LCSAEL01 1 Centimetres per second CurrSpd_CM Current speed (Eulerian) in the water body by in-situ current meter
PREXPR01 1 Decibars MeasPress_MW Pressure (measured variable) exerted by the water body by semi-fixed in-situ pressure sensor and corrected to read zero at sea level
PSALPR01 1 Dimensionless P_sal Practical salinity of the water body by conductivity cell and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm
TEMPPR01 1 Degrees Celsius Temp Temperature of the water body
 

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

Towards the end of the record (after 07/10/98 21:00) the attenuance signal increased dramatically indicating fouling of the optics or flattening of the battery. All affected records have been flagged suspect.

The rig on which this instrument was mounted was recovered 7 nautical miles off position to the SE. The current speed and pressure sensor records indicated that the mooring moved on 4-5 October between 22:00 and 01:00.


Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."


Narrative Documents

Aanderaa Recording Current Meter Model 7/8

Manufacturer's specifications: recording unit height 49.5cm (RCM8 52.0cm), diameter 12.8cm, vane size 48.5x50.0cm. Meter is designed for depths down to 2000m (RCM8 6000m). It incorporates a spindle which is shackled to the mooring line. The meter is attached to the spindle through a gimbal mounting which permits a maximum 27° deviation of the spindle from the vertical, the meter still remaining horizontal.

Meter comprises :

  1. Paddle wheel rotor magnetically coupled to an electronic counter

  2. Vane, which aligns instrument with current flow, has a balance weight ensuring static balance and tail fins to ensure dynamic balance in flows up to 250cm/s.

  3. Magnetic compass (needle is clamped to potentiometer ring) - direction recorded with 0.35° resolution, 5° accuracy for speeds 5 to 100cm/s, 7.5° accuracy for remaining speeds within 2.5 to 200cm/s range.

  4. Quartz clock, accuracy better than 2 sec/day within temperature range 0 to 20°C.

  5. Thermistor (temperature sensor), standard range -2.46 to 21.48°C (max on high range 36.04°C), accuracy 0.05°C, resolution 0.1 per cent of range, 63 per cent response time 12sec.

  6. Inductive cell conductivity sensor (optional), range 0 to 70mmho/cm standard resolution 0.1 per cent of range.

  7. Silicon piezoresistive bridge, standard range 0 to 3000 psi (RCM8 to 9000 psi), resolution 0.1% of range.

  8. Self balancing potentiometer which converts the output from each sensor into a 10 bit binary number for storage on magnetic tape.

  9. Associated electronics.

A built-in clock triggers the instrument at preset intervals and up to six channels are sampled in sequence. Channel 1 is a fixed reference reading for control purposes and data identification. Channels 2, 3 and 4 represent measurement of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Channels 5 and 6 represent the VECTOR AVERAGED current speed and direction since the previous triggering of the instrument. The number of rotor revolutions and the direction is sampled every 12 seconds and broken into North and East components. Successive components are added and recorded as speed and direction. For recording intervals longer than 10 minutes, speed and direction are sampled 1/50th of recording interval.

It has become common practice in some laboratories to deploy these meters as temperature and conductivity loggers without current measuring capabilities.

The following link will provide the manufacturer specifications:

Manufacturer specifications

SeaTech Transmissometer

Introduction

The transmissometer is designed to accurately measure the the amount of light transmitted by a modulated Light Emitting Diode (LED) through a fixed-length in-situ water column to a synchronous detector.

Specifications

Notes

The instrument can be interfaced to Aanderaa RCM7 current meters. This is achieved by fitting the transmissometer in a slot cut into a customized RCM4-type vane.

A red LED (660 nm) is used for general applications looking at water column sediment load. However, green or blue LEDs can be fitted for specilised optics applications. The light source used is identified by the BODC parameter code.

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's Manual .

Aanderaa Current Meter Data Processing

Data Originator's Processing

The following procedures are carried out before the data were supplied to BODC.

Data were downloaded from the instrument logger, and factory calibrations were applied to the current speed channel, and the pressure, conductivity and temperature channels when fitted. Where available, laboratory calibrations of the current direction channels were used; factory formulae were used in their absence. Where no form factor was known for the conductivity sensor, a value of 2.8 was used.

Please note (concerns vector averaged current data): The current data are averaged by the logger over the sampling interval, whereas the pressure, temperature and conductivity data are single point measurements taken at the end of the interval. The data originator has moved the time stamps to the mid-point of the vector averaging sampling interval for all channels without interpolation.

BODC Data Processing and Quality Control

Where pressure sensors were fitted: the data record was compared with the pressure computed from the water depth on deployment and rig geometry. The time series was visually screened for evidence of rig movement (e.g. trawling) and excessive leaning (perhaps due to strong currents).

Where temperature sensors were fitted: the data record was compared with calibrated CTD data taken in the vicinity and checked for agreement within a few tenths of a degree Celsius. Obvious spikes were flagged. Periods of excessively noisy data were noted.

Where conductivity sensors were fitted: salinity (PSS-78) was computed from in-situ temperature and conductivity and a nominal pressure computed from the water depth on deployment and rig geometry. Obvious spikes were flagged.

BODC Current Meter Screening

BODC screen both the series header qualifying information and the parameter values in the data cycles themselves.

Header information is inspected for:

Documents are written by BODC highlighting irregularities which cannot be resolved.

Data cycles are inspected using time series plots of all parameters. Currents are additionally inspected using vector scatter plots and time series plots of North and East velocity components. These presentations undergo intrinsic and extrinsic screening to detect infeasible values within the data cycles themselves and inconsistencies as seen when comparing characteristics of adjacent data sets displaced with respect to depth, position or time. Values suspected of being of non- oceanographic origin may be tagged with the BODC flag denoting suspect value.

The following types of irregularity, each relying on visual detection in the time series plot, are amongst those which may be flagged as suspect:

If a large percentage of the data is affected by irregularities, deemed abnormal, then instead of flagging the individual suspect values, a caution may be documented. Likewise documents will highlight irregularities seen in the current vector scatter plots such as incongruous centre holes, evidence of mooring 'knock-down', abnormal asymmetry in tidally dominated records or gaps as when a range of speeds or directions go unregistered due to meter malfunction.

The term 'knock-down' refers to the situation when the 'drag' exerted on a mooring at high current speeds may cause instruments to tilt beyond the angle at which they are intended to operate. At this point the efficiency of the current sensors to accurately record the flow is reduced.

Inconsistencies between the characteristics of the data set and those of its neighbours are sought, and where necessary, documented. This covers inconsistencies in the following:

This intrinsic and extrinsic screening of the parameter values seeks to confirm the qualifying information and the source laboratory's comments on the series. In screening and collating information, every care is taken to ensure that errors of BODC making are not introduced.

Data Processing Notes

  1. The transmission readings were converted to attenuance using the following values:

    Air correction reading = 1039.0
    Blanked path reading = 2.000

  2. Date/time is minus half the sampling interval from the recorded scan.

SeaTech Transmissometer Data Processing

Deployment/Recovery Procedure

(A. Banaszek/ P.Knight, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Birkenhead)

Prior to deployment, the counts logged by the transmissometer in free air and with the light path blocked were recorded. It was then strapped to the CTD frame, lowered into the water and held at a fixed depth for approximately 20 minutes for intercalibration with the CTD transmissometer.

On recovery the data were downloaded from the instrument logger and supplied to BODC as raw counts.

Post-Cruise Calibration

(Dr. S.E. Jones, University of Wales, Bangor)

The raw transmission counts were compared with fully corrected CTD attenuance data from the intercalibration cast. The air-correction counts reading (ACR) for each deployment was found from inversion of the formula:

Atten = -(1/p) * ln { (counts-BPR) / (ACR - BPR) }

where:

Atten = CTD attenuance (per metre)
p = path length (metres)
counts = datalogger reading (counts)
BPR = blocked path reading (counts)
ACR = air correcion reading (counts)

Air correction reading values for each instrument deployment were passed on to BODC.

BODC Data Processing and Quality Control

The data were then converted from data logger counts to attenuance (per metre) by applying the above calibration formula to each datacycle in the series.

The data were visually screened for evidence of fouling on the optics, leaking power connectors and flat batteries. Obvious spikes and any features believed to be of non-oceanographic origin were flagged suspect.


Project Information

PROcesses of Vertical Exchange in Shelf Seas (PROVESS)

Introduction

PROVESS was an interdisciplinary study of the vertical fluxes of properties through the water column and the surface and bottom boundary layers. The project was funded by the European Community MAST-III programme (MAS3-CT97- 0159) and ran from March 1998 to May 2001.

Scientific Rationale

PROVESS was based on the integration of experimental, theoretical and modelling studies with the aim of improving understanding and quantification of vertical exchange processes in the water column, in particular in the surface and benthic boundary layers and across the> pycnocline. PROVESS also explored mechanisms of physical-biological coupling in which vertical exchanges and turbulence significantly affect the environmental conditions experienced by the biota with particular reference to aggregation, flocculation, sedimentation and trophic interactions.

Fieldwork

The experimental phase of the project was carried out at two contrasting sites in the North Sea: the northern North Sea site (NNS) and the southern North Sea site (SNS).

The two sites had the following characteristics:

SNS NNS
Position 52° 15.0' N, 4° 17.0' E 59° 20.0' E, 1° 00.0' E
Time of year April-May September-November
Water depth (m) 16 100
M2 max amplitude (m s-1) 0.75 0.15
Max current (m s-1) 1.0 0.6
Delta T (deg C) mixed 7-1
Thermocline depth (m) mixed 35-100
Delta S 1 small
Halocline depth (m) 5-10 cf. thermocline depth
Max wind speed (m s-1) 20 25
Max wave height (m) 5 10
Max wave period (s) 8 10
Internal motion No Yes
Sediment muddy-sand muddy-sand
Biology eutrophic oligotrophic

At both locations measurements were concentrated at a central position with additional measurements being made to estimate horizontal gradients. Moored instruments (including current meters, temperature and pressure sensors, fluorometers, transmissometers, nutrient analysers and meteorological sensors) were deployed between 7 September and 5 November 1998 at the NNS and between 29 March and 25 May 1999 at the SNS. Each experiment was supported by intensive measurement series made from oceanographic ships and involving turbulence dissipation profiler CTD, particle size profilers, optical profilers, benthic sampling and water bottle sampling.

Details of the cruises were as follows:

Site Ship
(nationality)
Cruise
Mnemonic
Date
NNS Valdivia (GER) VA174 5 - 17 Sep 1998
  Dana (DK) D1198 14 - 26 Oct 1998
  Pelagia (NL) PE125 19 - 30 Oct 1998
  Challenger (UK) CH140 22 Oct - 9 Nov 1998
SNS Pelagia (NL) PE135 29 Mar - 9 Apr 1999
  Mitra (NL) MT0499 19 - 30 Apr 1999
  Belgica (BE) BG9912 17 - 21 May 1999

Data Activity or Cruise Information

Data Activity

Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 1998-09-10
End Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 1998-11-05
Organization Undertaking ActivityProudman Oceanographic Laboratory (now National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool)
Country of OrganizationUnited Kingdom
Originator's Data Activity IdentifierPOLRIG#799
Platform Categorysubsurface mooring

PROVESS Project POLRIG#799

This mooring was also known within PROVESS as 'Rig J1'. It was one of a cluster of moorings deployed at the main focus of the Northern North Sea Site in the autumn of 1998. The rig was deployed by FS Valdivia (cruise #174) in September 1998 and recovered by RRS Challenger (cruise #140) in October/November 1998.

Mooring type Mid-water environmental mooring with sub-surface buoyancy and 500 kg anchor clumps
Instruments DML fluorometer at 50 m above seabed
NAS nitrate analyser at 48 m above seabed
Aandara RCM7 fitted with SeaTech transmissometer at 49 m above seabed.

Note: rig recovered 7 nautical miles off position to the SE

Other Series linked to this Data Activity - 541987

Cruise

Cruise Name VLD174 (PROVESS N-1)
Departure Date 1998-09-05
Arrival Date 1998-09-17
Principal Scientist(s)Gunther Krause (Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research)
Ship FS Valdivia

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information

Fixed Station Information

Station NamePROVESS Northern North Sea Site
CategoryOffshore area
Latitude59° 18.00' N
Longitude1° 0.00' E
Water depth below MSL110.0 m

PROVESS Northern North Sea Site

Nineteen mooring packages were deployed at PROVESS Northern North Sea site during the cruise Valdivia VA174 in September 1998. The layout of the mooring assemblage was L-shaped. It consisted of an heavily-instrumented site centred close to 59° 20' N, 1° 00'E (Site A with rigs A, B, Ca/b, D, E, Fa/b, G, H, I, J1, J2 and L) and secondary single-rig sites extending up to 40 km north (V and Y) and east (U and X). An addition mooring package, NIOZ or Rig M, was also deployed at Site A during the RV Pelagia PE125 cruise in October 1998.

Rigs Ca/b and Fa/b were two short-term rigs which were recovered at the end of the cruise VA174 and redeployed during the cruise Challenger CH140 in October. All the other rigs were recovered during the cruise CH140 in October-November 1998 apart from rigs H and L which could not be found and rig Cb which was trawled and recovered from Peterhead (Scotland).

The layout of the mooring array was:

BODC image

Mooring data

The data returned from each rig were as follows:

Rig identifier Data
A POLRIG#790 ADCP currents
Water level
Near-bed temperature
B POLRIG#791 ADCP currents
Near-bed temperature
Ca POLRIG#792 Near-bed temperature
Cb POLRIG#808 Rig trawled, no data returned
D POLRIG#793 Currents
Temperature, salinity and attenuance
E POLRIG#794 Currents
Fa POLRIG#795 Currents
Fb POLRIG#809
NIOZ Unknown Thermistor chain
G POLRIG#796 Meteorology
H POLRIG#797 Mooring lost, no data returned
I POLRIG#798 Surface attenuance, nutrients and chlorophyll
J1 POLRIG#799 Mid-water attenuance, nutrients and chlorophyll
J2 POLRIG#800 Near-bed attenuance, nutrients and chlorophyll
L POLRIG#801 Mooring lost, no data returned
R POLRIG#802 Water column temperature
S POLRIG#803 Water column temperature
U POLRIG#804 ADCP currents
Water level
Near-bed temperature
V POLRIG#805 ADCP currents
Near-bed temperature
X POLRIG#806 Water level
Y POLRIG#807

CTD data

A total of 352 CTD casts were also collected during the four cruises surveying this area. These include:

Cruise identifier Cruise dates No. of CTD casts
FS Valdivia (#174) 05 September - 17 September 1998 168
Dana (#1198) 14 October - 26 October 1998 51
RV Pelagia (#125) 19 October - 30 October 1998 73
RRS Challenger (#140) 21 October - 11 November 1998 60

Additonal data

Complementary meteorological and sea state data for PROVESS Northern North Sea Experiment were obtained from Marine Weather Stations located on Beryl and Frigg oil platforms in the Northern North Sea.

Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 517613 517625 517637 517649 517650 517662 517674 517686 517698 517705 517717 517729 517730 517742 517754 517766 518087 518099 518106 518118 524173 524185 524204 524751 524763 524775 524799 524923 524935 524947 524959 529208 529221 529233 541883 541914 541951 541963 541975 541987 553128

Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - CH140 (PROVESS N-4) (2) PE125 (1)


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain