Resources

RRS James Cook JC150 (GApr08, ZIPLOC)

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Cook (740H)
Cruise identifierJC150 (GApr08, ZIPLOC)
Cruise period2017-06-25 — 2017-08-12
StatusCompleted
Port of departurePointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe
Port of returnSanta Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesRecent work by our team and others have demonstrated that the availability of the trace metals, specifically zinc and iron that regulate the biological uptake of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when inorganic phosphate is limiting. At present, on-going ocean warming is predicted to reduce the physical supply of essential nutrients, nitrate and phosphate, and hence control future trends in the productivity of subtropical gyres. This view ignores the significant additions of nitrogen to the subtropical ocean from both natural and anthropogenic activity that decouple nitrate and phosphate, causing phosphate stress for phytoplankton. This will drive an 'arms race' towards accessing alternative forms of phosphorus. The current view is that the problem of phosphate limitation in the ocean is largely solved by phytoplankton groups producing enzymes called alkaline phosphatases (AP) to access phosphate from DOP. We hypothesize that AP activity can be restricted by inadequate supply of zinc and/or iron, which would exacerbate phosphate limitation by limiting access to DOP. If zinc and iron limitation of these alternate phosphorus pools are widespread, this suggests the predictions of future trends in biological activity are inaccurate. By combining novel observational and modelling experiments we will gain a more complete quantitative understanding of how trace metals regulate phosphorus acquisition and thus biological activity in the contemporary and future ocean. In doing so, we will challenge the current view of the drivers of long-term trends in the productivity of the subtropical ocean. Due to their spatial extent this will have far reaching impacts on the cycling of carbon, oxygen and nutrients in the world ocean.

Aims
1. Determine the prevalence of zinc and iron limitation of APA in the phosphate deplete subtropical North Atlantic ocean
2. Quantify the impact of zinc-phosphorus and iron-phosphorus co-limitation on biological activity, specifically phytoplankton growth, primary production and nitrogen fixation
3. Quantify the significance of zinc-phosphorus and iron-phosphorus co-limitation in driving phytoplankton productivity over basin scales and multi-decadal time scales
Chief scientistClaire Mahaffey (University of Liverpool Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences)
Coordinating bodyNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Cruise reportRRS James Cook JC150 (GApr08, ZIPLOC) cruise report jc150.pdf (31.35 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralNorth Atlantic Ocean
SpecificTropical Atlantic
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 6
Description: Vertical profiles of oxygen
CTD stationsQuantity: number of profiles = 7
Description: Vertical profiles of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), 8-12 discrete depths, analysis by persulphate oxidation. Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a concentrations. Vertical profiles of rates of alkaline phosphatase activity.
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of profiles = 6
Description: Vertical profiles of oxygen
PhosphateQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
PhosphateQuantity: number of profiles = 15
Description: Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Phosphate. Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Nitrate
PhosphateQuantity: number of experiments = 122
Description: 122 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nautical miles for the following: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
PhosphateQuantity: number of experiments = 7
Description: 306 discrete samples for Whole Community Nutrient additions. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
PhosphateQuantity: number of experiments = 4
Description: Samples for Iron 59 Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
PhosphateQuantity: number of experiments = 10
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
PhosphateQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 122
Description: 122 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nautical miles for the following: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitrateQuantity: number of profiles = 15
Description: Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Phosphate. Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Nitrate
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 7
Description: 306 discrete samples for Whole Community Nutrient additions. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 4
Description: Samples for Iron 59 Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitrateQuantity: number of experiments = 10
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 7
Description: 306 discrete samples for Whole Community Nutrient additions. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
NitriteQuantity: number of profiles = 15
Description: Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Phosphate. Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Nitrate
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 4
Description: Samples for Iron 59 Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 10
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
NitriteQuantity: number of experiments = 122
Description: 122 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nautical miles for the following: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 10
Description: Samples from ZIPLOc Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 4
Description: Samples for Iron 59 Incubation experiments. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 7
Description: 306 discrete samples for Whole Community Nutrient additions. Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
AmmoniaQuantity: number of experiments = 122
Description: 122 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nautical miles for the following: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium
AmmoniaQuantity: number of profiles = 15
Description: Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Phosphate. Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Nitrate
SilicateQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
SilicateQuantity: number of profiles = 15
Description: Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Phosphate. Vertical depth profiles of Dissolved Nitrate
Trace elementsQuantity: number of experiments = 65
Description: Total dissolvable iron and zinc. Analyses by flow injection.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of profiles = 14
Description: Vertical profiles of dissolved iron and zinc, 24 samples per CTD. Analyses by flow Injection. Vertical profiles of total dissolvable iron and zinc, 12 samples per CTD. Analyses by flow Injection. Vertical profiles of soluble iron, 12 samples per CTD, analyses by flow injection. . Vertical profiles of particulate trace metals, 8 samples per CTD. Analyses by acid digestion followed by ICP-MS detection.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of experiments = 129
Description: Dissolved iron and zinc, Analyses by flow Injection.
Trace elementsQuantity: number of experiments = 4
Description: Dissolved iron (20 discrete samples per experiment). Soluble iron (20 discrete samples per experiment). Total dissolvable (20 discrete samples per experiment)
Trace elementsQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Dissolved iron and zinc (21-36 discrete samples per experiment.
IsotopesQuantity: number of profiles = 3
Description: Vertical profiles of dissolved zinc and chromium isotopes, analyses by MC-ICP-MS. 12 samples from each CTD
Biology and fisheries 
Primary productivityQuantity: number of stations = 7
Description: Trichodesmium colony abundance from 15m, 20 discrete samples
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of profiles = 7
Description: Vertical profiles of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), 8-12 discrete depths, analysis by persulphate oxidation. Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a concentrations. Vertical profiles of rates of alkaline phosphatase activity.
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Chlorophyll a (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of nitrogen fixation (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment).
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of samples = 129
Description: 129 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nm for the following: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) analysis by persulphate oxidation. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity. Rates of nitrogen fixation (samples taken once per day, 7 samples only)
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of experiments = 10
Description: Chlorophyll a (60 to 80 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (60 to 80 discrete samples per experiment)
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: track kilometres = 3300
Description: Approx 1800 nm of continuouos fluoresence measurements using FRRF
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of profiles = 7
Description: Vertical profiles of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), 8-12 discrete depths, analysis by persulphate oxidation. Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a concentrations. Vertical profiles of rates of alkaline phosphatase activity.
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Chlorophyll a (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of nitrogen fixation (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment).
Dissolved organic matter (inc DOC)Quantity: number of samples = 129
Description: 129 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nm for the following: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) analysis by persulphate oxidation. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity. Rates of nitrogen fixation (samples taken once per day, 7 samples only)
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of track lines = 7
Description: Diel underway sampling, nucleic acid analysis, 183 discrete samples
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of track lines = 7
Description: 120 discrete samples from FISH and underway system for nucleic acid analysis
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of experiments = 7
Description: Whole water samples for nucleic acid analyses (experiment D), 224 discrete samples
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of stations = 7
Description: Trichodesmium diel sampling, 324 discrete samples
Biochemical measurements (eg lipids, amino acids)Quantity: number of stations = 7
Description: Trichodesmium colonies from nutrient incubations, 345 discrete samples
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Chlorophyll a (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of nitrogen fixation (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment).
PhytoplanktonQuantity: number of samples = 129
Description: 129 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nm for the following: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) analysis by persulphate oxidation. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity. Rates of nitrogen fixation (samples taken once per day, 7 samples only)
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of experiments = 8
Description: Dissolved Phosphate. Dissolved Nitrate. Dissolved Nitrite. Dissolved Ammonium. Dissolved Silicate. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. DNA samples for microarray analysis
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of experiments = 9
Description: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Chlorophyll a (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of nitrogen fixation (21 to 36 discrete samples per experiment).
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of samples = 129
Description: 129 discrete samples along transect of 1846 nm for the following: Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) analysis by persulphate oxidation. Chlorophyll a. Samples for phytoplankton community structure by flow cytometry analysis. Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity. Rates of nitrogen fixation (samples taken once per day, 7 samples only)
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of profiles = 7
Description: Vertical profiles of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), 8-12 discrete depths, analysis by persulphate oxidation. Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a concentrations. Vertical profiles of rates of alkaline phosphatase activity.
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of experiments = 10
Description: Chlorophyll a (60 to 80 discrete samples per experiment). Rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (60 to 80 discrete samples per experiment)
Data held at BODC Get data
Series/Profiles 
15  Bottle station
Reference numbers
Vertical spatial coordinates
Total metal concentrations in water bodies
Metadata parameters
Quality control flags
Dissolved metal concentrations in the water column
Reference numbers
Vertical spatial coordinates
Total metal concentrations in water bodies
Metadata parameters
Quality control flags
Dissolved metal concentrations in the water column

BODC idDate/TimeLocationDoc.
20519472017-07-06 13:45 21° 59' 59" N  54° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051947
20519232017-07-01 17:13 22° 0' 0" N  58° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051923
20519602017-07-14 07:14 22° 0' 0" N  50° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051960
20519962017-07-18 13:10 23° 21' 59" N  44° 56' 59" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051996
20520472017-08-01 09:52 22° 19' 47" N  35° 52' 11" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052047
20519842017-07-18 04:41 23° 21' 59" N  44° 57' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051984
20519112017-06-30 08:49 21° 59' 59" N  58° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051911
20519352017-07-02 08:15 22° 0' 0" N  58° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051935
20520232017-07-23 14:58 22° 59' 59" N  40° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052023
20520592017-08-06 12:21 21° 59' 59" N  30° 59' 59" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052059
20520602017-08-08 03:42 22° 0' 0" N  30° 59' 59" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052060
20519592017-07-08 06:43 22° 0' 0" N  54° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051959
20519722017-07-15 05:43 22° 0' 0" N  49° 59' 59" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2051972
20520112017-07-23 04:34 23° 0' 0" N  40° 0' 0" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052011
20520352017-07-31 06:20 22° 19' 47" N  35° 52' 11" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052035
1  Meteorological data logger
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Air pressure
Visible waveband radiance and irradiance measurements in the atmosphere
Date and time
Air temperature
Raw light meter output
Wind strength and direction
Solar Radiation
Atmospheric humidity
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Air pressure
Visible waveband radiance and irradiance measurements in the atmosphere
Date and time
Air temperature
Raw light meter output
Wind strength and direction
Solar Radiation
Atmospheric humidity

BODC idDate/TimeLocationDoc.
18019012017-06-27 01:30  — 2017-08-12 07:51 16° 4' 4" N  61° 32' 40" W — 28° 27' 50" N  16° 13' 21" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 1801901
1  Multi-beam echosounder
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Date and time
Platform or instrument orientation
Horizontal platform movement
Bathymetry and Elevation
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Date and time
Platform or instrument orientation
Horizontal platform movement
Bathymetry and Elevation

BODC idDate/TimeLocationDoc.
18018942017-06-27 01:30  — 2017-08-12 07:51 16° 4' 4" N  61° 32' 40" W — 28° 27' 50" N  16° 13' 21" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 1801894
1  Multiple instrument types
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Transmittance and attenuance of the water column
Date and time
Salinity of the water column
Temperature of the water column
Electrical conductivity of the water column
Raw fluorometer output
Metadata parameters
Raw suspended particulate material concentration sensor output
Chlorophyll pigment concentrations in water bodies
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Transmittance and attenuance of the water column
Date and time
Salinity of the water column
Temperature of the water column
Electrical conductivity of the water column
Raw fluorometer output
Metadata parameters
Raw suspended particulate material concentration sensor output
Chlorophyll pigment concentrations in water bodies

BODC idDate/TimeLocationDoc.
18019132017-06-27 01:30  — 2017-08-12 07:51 16° 4' 4" N  61° 32' 40" W — 28° 27' 50" N  16° 13' 21" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 1801913
2  Pumped water sample
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Date and time
Phytoplankton taxonomic abundance in water bodies
Total metal concentrations in water bodies
Bacteria generic abundance in water bodies
Plankton abundance per unit volume of the water column
Dissolved metal concentrations in the water column
Horizontal spatial co-ordinates
Date and time
Phytoplankton taxonomic abundance in water bodies
Total metal concentrations in water bodies
Bacteria generic abundance in water bodies
Plankton abundance per unit volume of the water column
Dissolved metal concentrations in the water column

BODC idDate/TimeLocationDoc.
20520722017-06-29 00:00  — 2017-08-08 19:10 21° 17' 21" N  58° 11' 27" W — 23° 21' 34" N  30° 30' 31" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 2052072
19788672017-06-27 16:00  — 2017-08-08 19:10 17° 30' 16" N  60° 5' 0" W — 23° 21' 34" N  30° 30' 31" W  View metadata report for BODC series reference number 1978867
Discrete samples 
129  All plastic clean surface pumped supply
19  CTD frame plus rosette sampler
65  Sample taken from ship's non-toxic supplySalinity of the water column
35