Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 864676
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Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers
The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.
The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.
Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors
The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.
The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.
Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.
Deck unit or SEARAM
Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.
Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:
|Parameter||Range||Initial accuracy||Resolution at 24 Hz||Response time|
|Temperature||-5 to 35°C||0.001°C||0.0002°C||0.065 sec|
|Conductivity||0 to 7 S m-1||0.0003 S m-1||0.00004 S m-1||0.065 sec (pumped)|
|Pressure||0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m)||0.015% of full scale||0.001% of full scale||0.015 sec|
Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.
RV Belgica 9714 CTD Data Documentation
Instrumentation and Shipboard Procedures
The CTD profiles were taken with a SeaBird SBE 911 plus system. The instrument had enclosed conductivity and temperature sensors supplied with water by a pump. The water inlet was at the base of the bottle rosette. The CTD had a temperature and salinity (TC) duct with inertia balanced pump flow to improve the quality of salinity measurements.
When not in use, the sensors were bathed in MilliQ water. SeaBird temperature sensors are high performance, pressure protected thermistors. Other sensors on the rig were a dissolved oxygen cell (YSI SBE-13-Y polargraphic membrane) and a SeaBird optical backscatter sensor.
The CTD was periodically sent for calibration to SeaBird's NWRCC facility in Washington State. An average of 4 salinity samples were taken per cast, stored in crown-corked beer bottles, and determined on Guildline Portasal laboratory salinometer, calibrated using OSI standard seawater.
A SeaBird rosette sampler fitted with 12, 10 litre Niskin bottles was mounted above the frame. The bases of the bottles were level with the pressure sensor with their tops 0.8 m above it.
The CTD sampled at 24 Hz but this was automatically reduced to 2 Hz by the deck unit. Data were logged on a PC using the SeaBird SEASAVE program.
The CTD was lowered at 0.8-1 m/s. On the upcast, the hauling rate was approximately the same, but was reduced on approach to a bottle firing depth to minimise wake interference.
The SeaBird DATCNV software was used to convert the binary raw data files into the calibrated ASCII data files supplied to BODC.
The salinity computation algorithm in the software is based on Fofonoff and Millard (1982). Salinity spiking on thermal gradients was minimised through software realignment of the temperature and conductivity channels.
The data were converted into the BODC internal format (PXF) to allow the use of in-house software tools, notably the workstation graphics editor. In addition to reformatting, the transfer program converted the dissolved oxygen from µmol/kg to µM by multiplying the values by (1000 + sigma-theta)/1000.
Reformatted CTD data were transferred onto a high-speed graphics workstation for manual inspection using a custom in-house graphics editor. The top and bottom of the downcast were marked to eliminate noisy data logged whilst the instrument was stabilising.
The data were examined point by point and any obvious spikes were flagged 'suspect'.
Once screened on the workstation, the CTD downcasts were loaded into a database under the Oracle relational database management system. Note that the loader only included data from the downcast marked during screening.
The pressure calibrations were obtained by looking at the pressure values logged whilst the CTD unit was on the deck. Calibration data were available from legs C and D, which gave the following offsets:
|Leg C:||pressure correction = -0.32 db||(S.D.=0.07)|
|Leg D:||pressure correction = -0.32 db||(S.D.=0.08)|
On the basis of this a correction of -0.32 decibars was applied to the pressure values from all three legs.
The temperature data are believed to be accurate as supplied and no further calibrations have been applied.
The salinity calibrations were derived separately for each leg of the cruise by comparison of the values measured by the CTD with salinometer determinations on water bottle samples.
The following corrections have been applied to the data:
|Leg B:||Corrected salinity = CTD salinity - 0.016||(n=6; S.D.=0.003)|
|Leg C:||Corrected salinity = CTD salinity - 0.021||(n=73; S.D.=0.006)|
|Leg D:||Corrected salinity = CTD salinity - 0.025||(n=18; S.D.=0.002)|
The CTD dissolved oxygen data were calibrated against water sample data obtained by the University of Liège using an automated Winkler titration technique. The bottle data were converted to units of *M at in-situ temperature and salinity prior to calibration.
Each leg was calibrated separately, giving rise to the equations below, which have been applied to the data:
|Leg B:||Corrected oxygen = CTD oxygen * 1.029 - 6.02||(n=12; R2=96%)|
|Leg C:||Corrected oxygen = CTD oxygen * 0.964 + 13.07||(n=232; R2=96%)|
|Leg D:||Corrected oxygen = CTD oxygen * 0.915 + 23.18||(n=44; R2=99%)|
The data were calibrated using the SeaBird software, based on a laboratory formazin calibration. No additional calibrations have been applied.
Once all screening and calibration procedures were completed, the data set were binned to 2 db (casts deeper than 100 db) or 1 db (casts shallower than 100 db). The binning algorithm excluded any data points flagged suspect and attempted linear interpolation over gaps up to 3 bins wide. If any gaps larger than this were encountered, the data in the gaps were set null.
Downcast values corresponding to the bottle firing depths were incorporated into the database. Oxygen saturations were computed using the algorithm of Benson and Krause (1984).
Benson B.B. and Krause D. jnr. 1984. The concentration and isotopic fractionation of oxygen dissolved in fresh water and seawater in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, pp.620-632.
Fofonoff N.P., Millard R.C. 1982. Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science. 44.
Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) II - II
OMEX was a European multidisciplinary oceanographic research project that studied and quantified the exchange processes of carbon and associated elements between the continental shelf of western Europe and the open Atlantic Ocean. The project ran in two phases known as OMEX I (1993-1996) and OMEX II - II (1997-2000), with a bridging phase OMEX II - I (1996-1997). The project was supported by the European Union under the second and third phases of its MArine Science and Technology Programme (MAST) through contracts MAS2-CT93-0069 and MAS3-CT97-0076. It was led by Professor Roland Wollast from Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium and involved more than 100 scientists from 10 European countries.
The aim of the Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) project was to gain a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring at the ocean margins in order to quantify fluxes of energy and matter (carbon, nutrients and other trace elements) across this boundary. The research culminated in the development of quantitative budgets for the areas studied using an approach based on both field measurements and modeling.
OMEX II - II (1997-2000)
The second phase of OMEX concentrated exclusively on the Iberian Margin, although RV Belgica did make some measurements on La Chapelle Bank whilst on passage to Zeebrugge. This is a narrow-shelf environment, which contrasts sharply with the broad shelf adjacent to the Goban Spur. This phase of the project was also strongly multidisciplinary in approach, covering physics, chemistry, biology and geology.
There were a total of 33 OMEX II - II research cruises, plus 23 CPR tows, most of which were instrumented. Some of these cruises took place before the official project start date of June 1997.
Field data collected during OMEX II - II have been published by BODC as a CD-ROM product, entitled:
- OMEX II Project Data Set (three discs)
Further descriptions of this product and order forms may be found on the BODC web site.
The data are also held in BODC's databases and subsets may be obtained by request from BODC.
|Principal Scientist(s)||Marc Elskens (Free University of Brussels Laboratory of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry)|
Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here
Fixed Station Information
|Station Name||OMEX II-II Repeat Section R|
OMEX II-II Repeat Section R
Section R was one of ten repeat sections sampled during the Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) II-II project between June 1997 and September 1999.
The CTD measurements collected at repeat section R, at the Iberian Margin, lie within a box bounded by co-ordinates 42° 19.2' N, 10° 0.7' W at the southwest corner and 42° 20.8' N, 08° 59.8' W at the northeast corner.
Cruises occupying section R
|Cruise||Start Date||End Date|
|RRS Charles Darwin 105B||10/06/1997||22/06/1997|
|RV Belgica 9714C||21/06/1997||30/06/1997|
|RRS Charles Darwin 110A||23/12/1997||05/01/1998|
|RRS Charles Darwin 110B||06/01/1998||19/01/1998|
|RV Belgica 9815C||27/06/1998||07/07/1998|
|RV Belgica 9919B||04/09/1999||11/09/1999|
|RV Belgica 9919C||14/09/1999||18/09/1999|
Related Fixed Station activities are detailed in Appendix 1
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|<||Below detection limit|
|>||In excess of quoted value|
|A||Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)|
|B||Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|C||Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)|
|E||End of CTD Down/Up Cast|
|G||Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty|
|I||Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)|
|K||Improbable value - unknown quality control source|
|L||Improbable value - originator's quality control|
|M||Improbable value - BODC quality control|
|O||Improbable value - user quality control|
The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:
|0||no quality control|
|2||probably good value|
|3||probably bad value|
|6||value below detection|
|7||value in excess|
|A||value phenomenon uncertain|
|Q||value below limit of quantification|
Appendix 1: OMEX II-II Repeat Section R
Related series for this Fixed Station are presented in the table below. Further information can be found by following the appropriate links.
If you are interested in these series, please be aware we offer a multiple file download service. Should your credentials be insufficient for automatic download, the service also offers a referral to our Enquiries Officer who may be able to negotiate access.
|Series Identifier||Data Category||Start date/time||Start position||Cruise|
|866369||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-17 22:41:00||42.33433 N, 9.626 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866136||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 01:33:00||42.34017 N, 9.49817 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866370||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 08:52:00||42.332 N, 9.00067 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866382||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 10:20:00||42.33233 N, 9.20017 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866148||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 11:31:00||42.33317 N, 9.28567 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866394||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 13:53:00||42.3465 N, 9.457 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866401||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 15:03:00||42.34433 N, 9.468 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|866161||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-18 17:29:00||42.33567 N, 9.77833 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|865944||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-19 11:50:00||42.3335 N, 10.0025 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD105B|
|864664||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-23 16:04:00||42.3325 N, 9.20117 W||RV Belgica BG9714C|
|864210||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-23 20:23:00||42.33483 N, 9.70517 W||RV Belgica BG9714C|
|864688||CTD or STD cast||1997-06-23 23:25:00||42.33917 N, 10.01167 W||RV Belgica BG9714C|
|866947||CTD or STD cast||1997-12-27 07:32:00||42.3405 N, 9.277 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD110A|
|866867||CTD or STD cast||1997-12-30 16:06:00||42.33517 N, 8.99783 W||RRS Charles Darwin CD110A|
|864990||CTD or STD cast||1998-06-27 15:06:00||42.33167 N, 9.00267 W||RV Belgica BG9815C|
|865041||CTD or STD cast||1998-06-27 16:34:00||42.333 N, 9.20283 W||RV Belgica BG9815C|
|865053||CTD or STD cast||1998-06-27 19:59:00||42.336 N, 9.99617 W||RV Belgica BG9815C|
|880431||CTD or STD cast||1999-09-08 18:51:00||42.32717 N, 9.6245 W||RV Belgica BG9919B|
|880302||CTD or STD cast||1999-09-08 23:27:00||42.3325 N, 9.20517 W||RV Belgica BG9919B|
|880418||CTD or STD cast||1999-09-09 22:42:00||42.3305 N, 9.45933 W||RV Belgica BG9919B|
|880640||CTD or STD cast||1999-09-16 21:26:00||42.32983 N, 9.005 W||RV Belgica BG9919C|
|880652||CTD or STD cast||1999-09-17 14:00:00||42.3335 N, 9.77467 W||RV Belgica BG9919C|