Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 508056


Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category Currents -subsurface Eulerian
Instrument Type
NameCategories
Aanderaa RCM 7/8 Recording Current Meter  current meters
Instrument Mounting subsurface mooring
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Mr Colin Griffiths
Originating Organization Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory (now Scottish Association for Marine Science)
Processing Status banked
Project(s) -
 

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier 9177.295
BODC Series Reference 508056
 

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 1993-05-21 08:45
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 1993-09-10 07:44
Nominal Cycle Interval 1800.0 seconds
 

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 56.62830 N ( 56° 37.7' N )
Longitude 6.39670 W ( 6° 23.8' W )
Positional Uncertainty 0.1 to 0.5 n.miles
Minimum Sensor Depth 29.0 m
Maximum Sensor Depth 29.0 m
Minimum Sensor Height 22.0 m
Maximum Sensor Height 22.0 m
Sea Floor Depth 51.0 m
Sensor Distribution Sensor fixed, measurements made at fixed depths - The sensor is at a fixed depth, but measurements are made remotely from the sensor over a range of depths (e.g. ADCP measurements)
Sensor Depth Datum Sea floor reference - Depth measured as a height above sea floor but converted into a depth relative to the sea surface according to the same datum as used for sea floor depth (applicable to instrument depths not bathymetric depths)
Sea Floor Depth Datum Approximate - Depth is only approximate
 

Parameters

BODC CODE Rank Units Short Title Title
AADYAA01 1 Days Date(Loch_Day) Date (time from 00:00 01/01/1760 to 00:00 UT on day)
AAFDZZ01 1 Days Time(Day_Fract) Time (time between 00:00 UT and timestamp)
LCDAEL01 1 Degrees True CurrDir Current direction (Eulerian) in the water body by in-situ current meter and correction to true North
LCEWEL01 1 Centimetres per second CurrVelE_CM Eastward current velocity (Eulerian) in the water body by in-situ current meter
LCNSEL01 1 Centimetres per second CurrVelN_CM Northward current velocity (Eulerian) in the water body by in-situ current meter
LCSAEL01 1 Centimetres per second CurrSpd_CM Current speed (Eulerian) in the water body by in-situ current meter
PREXPR01 1 Decibars MeasPress_MW Pressure (measured variable) exerted by the water body by semi-fixed in-situ pressure sensor and corrected to read zero at sea level
TEMPPR01 1 Degrees Celsius Temp Temperature of the water body
 

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database


Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."


Narrative Documents

Aanderaa Recording Current Meter Model 7/8

Manufacturer's specifications: recording unit height 49.5cm (RCM8 52.0cm), diameter 12.8cm, vane size 48.5x50.0cm. Meter is designed for depths down to 2000m (RCM8 6000m). It incorporates a spindle which is shackled to the mooring line. The meter is attached to the spindle through a gimbal mounting which permits a maximum 27° deviation of the spindle from the vertical, the meter still remaining horizontal.

Meter comprises :

  1. Paddle wheel rotor magnetically coupled to an electronic counter

  2. Vane, which aligns instrument with current flow, has a balance weight ensuring static balance and tail fins to ensure dynamic balance in flows up to 250cm/s.

  3. Magnetic compass (needle is clamped to potentiometer ring) - direction recorded with 0.35° resolution, 5° accuracy for speeds 5 to 100cm/s, 7.5° accuracy for remaining speeds within 2.5 to 200cm/s range.

  4. Quartz clock, accuracy better than 2 sec/day within temperature range 0 to 20°C.

  5. Thermistor (temperature sensor), standard range -2.46 to 21.48°C (max on high range 36.04°C), accuracy 0.05°C, resolution 0.1 per cent of range, 63 per cent response time 12sec.

  6. Inductive cell conductivity sensor (optional), range 0 to 70mmho/cm standard resolution 0.1 per cent of range.

  7. Silicon piezoresistive bridge, standard range 0 to 3000 psi (RCM8 to 9000 psi), resolution 0.1% of range.

  8. Self balancing potentiometer which converts the output from each sensor into a 10 bit binary number for storage on magnetic tape.

  9. Associated electronics.

A built-in clock triggers the instrument at preset intervals and up to six channels are sampled in sequence. Channel 1 is a fixed reference reading for control purposes and data identification. Channels 2, 3 and 4 represent measurement of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Channels 5 and 6 represent the VECTOR AVERAGED current speed and direction since the previous triggering of the instrument. The number of rotor revolutions and the direction is sampled every 12 seconds and broken into North and East components. Successive components are added and recorded as speed and direction. For recording intervals longer than 10 minutes, speed and direction are sampled 1/50th of recording interval.

It has become common practice in some laboratories to deploy these meters as temperature and conductivity loggers without current measuring capabilities.

The following link will provide the manufacturer specifications:

Manufacturer specifications

BODC Current Meter Screening

BODC screen both the series header qualifying information and the parameter values in the data cycles themselves.

Header information is inspected for:

Documents are written by BODC highlighting irregularities which cannot be resolved.

Data cycles are inspected using time series plots of all parameters. Currents are additionally inspected using vector scatter plots and time series plots of North and East velocity components. These presentations undergo intrinsic and extrinsic screening to detect infeasible values within the data cycles themselves and inconsistencies as seen when comparing characteristics of adjacent data sets displaced with respect to depth, position or time. Values suspected of being of non- oceanographic origin may be tagged with the BODC flag denoting suspect value.

The following types of irregularity, each relying on visual detection in the time series plot, are amongst those which may be flagged as suspect:

If a large percentage of the data is affected by irregularities, deemed abnormal, then instead of flagging the individual suspect values, a caution may be documented. Likewise documents will highlight irregularities seen in the current vector scatter plots such as incongruous centre holes, evidence of mooring 'knock-down', abnormal asymmetry in tidally dominated records or gaps as when a range of speeds or directions go unregistered due to meter malfunction.

The term 'knock-down' refers to the situation when the 'drag' exerted on a mooring at high current speeds may cause instruments to tilt beyond the angle at which they are intended to operate. At this point the efficiency of the current sensors to accurately record the flow is reduced.

Inconsistencies between the characteristics of the data set and those of its neighbours are sought, and where necessary, documented. This covers inconsistencies in the following:

This intrinsic and extrinsic screening of the parameter values seeks to confirm the qualifying information and the source laboratory's comments on the series. In screening and collating information, every care is taken to ensure that errors of BODC making are not introduced.

Summary of DML (formerly SMBA) Standard Procedures for Current Meter Data

Calibration

Each meter is calibrated against the manufacturer's formulae for direction and Plessey meters are calibrated for temperature; Aanderaa meters use the manufacturer's temperature calibrations. The manufacturer's velocity and pressure calibrations are used.

Mooring System for Water Depths up to 200m

U shaped mooring i.e. pellet float to pellet line to sub-surface buoy to meter mooring line (with either in-line or A-frame mounting of meters) to anchor weight to ground line to anchor weight to marker buoy tow chain, then line to surface spar marker buoy and to pellet line and floats. The mooring is deployed in the order given and recovered in reverse order. Usually lengths of main wires are: buoy tow line D-15m, buoy tow chain 55m, sometimes buoy line is all chain, (prior to 1977 buoy tow line 2D used without chain), ground wire 2D (but never less than 150m), meter rope (excluding sub-surface buoy bridles and anchor bridles) D-X-3m where D is the depth of water and X is the depth of the sub-surface buoy. Generally X=30m but this may vary depending on the application of the mooring and the requirement for near surface current measurements. The mooring site is chosen by echo sounding to accord with the preset length of instrument line; however occasionally the length of the instrument line is adjusted on station. The site is positioned to an accuracy of 0.5nm using either Decca main chain, Loran or Satellite Navigation (GPS), depending on reception etc.

Data Sampling/Processing

Speed is integrated over the sampling interval. Direction and, where measured, temperature and pressure, are taken as spot measurements at the end of the sampling interval. Direction is corrected for magnetic variation. Pressure measurements are not corrected for atmospheric pressure.

Parameter values i.e. speed, direction, temperature and pressure are given at times incremented by the sample interval. The time assigned to each parameter is that of the end of the sampling interval. Time values are corrected for clock error should this occur.

Sea floor depths are relative to the instantaneous sea surface i.e. obtained from corrected echo soundings at the time of rig deployment (Matthew's corrections are applied).


Project Information


No Project Information held for the Series

Data Activity or Cruise Information

Data Activity

Start Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 1993-05-21
End Date (yyyy-mm-dd) 1993-09-10
Organization Undertaking ActivityDunstaffnage Marine Laboratory (now Scottish Association for Marine Science)
Country of OrganizationUnited Kingdom
Originator's Data Activity IdentifierTiree#295
Platform Categorysubsurface mooring

Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory Moored Instrument Rig#295

This rig was deployed in the Tiree Passage at site Y. The deployment forms part of the moored current meter series in the Tiree Passage, from 1981 to present.

Rig Position 56° 37.7' N, 06° 23.8' W
Deployed 21 May 1993 06:32
from RRS Challenger (cruise CH103)
Recovered 10 Sep 1993 10:24
from RRS Challenger (cruise CH105)

The instruments formed a U-shaped mooring anchored by two 450kg weights, connected by a 100 metre ground wire. A spar marker buoy was attached to one of the weights, with a recovery line. The instruments, attached to the second weight, were held erect by a sub-surface buoy.

Instruments deployed on the rig

Height above Sea Bed Instrument
11m Aanderaa current meter (#10211) including temperature sensor
22m Aanderaa current meter (#9177) including sensors for pressure and temperature.

Other Series linked to this Data Activity - 508308

Cruise

Cruise Name CH103
Departure Date 1993-05-12
Arrival Date 1993-05-24
Principal Scientist(s)David J Ellett (Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory)
Ship RRS Challenger

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here


Fixed Station Information

Fixed Station Information

Station NameDML Tiree Passage Mooring
CategoryOffshore location
Latitude56° 37.20' N
Longitude6° 24.00' W
Water depth below MSL50.0 m

Tiree Passage Mooring

The Tiree Passage Mooring (also referred to as Y Mooring) is a current meter mooring at 56° 37.2' N, 6° 24.0' W. It has been maintained by the Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory (DML)/ Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) since 1981. The mooring is serviced approximately 3 times a year. The Tiree Passage Mooring is the longest moored time series of flow and temperature on the NW European continental shelf.

Between 21/05/1993 and 17/09/1997 the mooring included two Aanderaa current meters located 11 m and 22 m above the sea floor except for the period between 09/05/1994 and 15/08/1994 when there was no top current meter. The proportion of good data returned was exceptionally high.

Gaps in the time series are caused by fluctuations in funding, mooring losses and instrument failures (additional gaps in the current time series, usually due to fouling of mechanical current meters).

Although conductivity sensors were fitted to the Aanderaa current meters from 1994 to 1997, the reliability of these sensors over long periods is questionable, and more work needs to be done in cross calibrating the calculated salinity against the salinity of coincident 'Ellett Line/Extended Ellett Line' CTD casts.

It should be noted that some data were submitted to BODC from PML and not DML. This was due the relocation of the Principal Investigator responsible for the data. He subsequently returned to DML.

Summary of Key Activities

Date Activity
1981 Tiree mooring is first deployed
June 1981 Hourly current and temperature measurements using Aanderaa recording current meters (RCMs) recorded at the bottom of the mooring (11 m above the bed)
November 1987 Addition of Aanderaa recording current meters (RCMs) at 22 m above the bed
September 1993 Hourly salinity measurements started to be taken at both depths using Aanderaa conductivity sensors
September 1997 Collection of data at both depths stops
Between June 1999 and February 2000 The mooring was re-deployed
May 2002 until the present Mooring is fitted with RCMs at both 20 m and 45 m above the bed.
August 2002 A Seabird MicroCAT salinity sensor was added at 20 m above bed.

BODC image

Figure 1: Map showing the locations of the Tiree mooring data time series.

BODC image

Figure 2: The typcial set up of the Tiree mooring.

References

Inall, M. and Griffiths, C., 2003 The Tiree Passage Time Series: 1981-2003 DEFRA MECN: Tiree Passage

Other Series linked to this Fixed Station for this cruise - 508308

Other Cruises linked to this Fixed Station (with the number of series) - CD10B (1) CD92B (2) CH1/85 (1) CH105 (2) CH110 (1) CH112 (2) CH114 (2) CH116 (2) CH120 (2) CH124 (2) CH14 (1) CH2/84 (1) CH22 (2) CH25 (2) CH30 (2) CH4/85 (1) CH8/85 (1) CH9 (1) D180 (2) DSK1/86 (1) FR13/85 (1) FR18/87 (1) LF1/89 (1) LF2/89 (2)


BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain