Resources

RRS James Clark Ross JR17001 (ORCHESTRA)

Cruise summary report

Cruise Info. 
Ship name (ship code)RRS James Clark Ross (74JC)
Cruise identifierJR17001 (ORCHESTRA)
Cruise period2017-11-21 — 2017-12-21
StatusCompleted
Port of departureStanley, Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Port of returnPunta Arenas, Chile
PurposeResearch
ObjectivesJR17001 focussed on Southern Ocean science in the Drake Passage and West Antarctic Peninsula. This is both a hotspot of climate-forced physical change and an area of global importance in relation to carbon and heat fluxes between the atmosphere and ocean. JR17001 included three workpackages, a NERC-Conicyt project ICEBERGS (seabed biology) and two ORCHESTRA projects (oceanography). These projects had differing operation areas from the open ocean of Drake Passage (Firing team), offshore from the NW Antarctic Peninsula (Brearley team) and fjordic inshore of NW Antarctic Peninsula (Scourse team).

The most inshore project, ICEBERGS, planned to sample transects from fjord mouth to inner most safe navigation along three retreating glaciers. The sample fjords were selected as those for which there was detailed spatial retreat history (courtesy of Alison Cook) and seabed bathymetry (collated by Floyd Howard). Thus seabed and water column physics, biogeochemistry and biology could be sampled along a gradient of age and glacier influence, from where glaciers had not covered for >60 years to where they were less than a decade ago. This three-year joint UK-Chile project required a wide skills pool of scientists from seven different academic institutions and a similarly diverse array of apparatus. Ultimately ICEBERGS goal was to quantify how glacial retreat was influencing nearshore systems and biology and what the medium-term consequences of this would be.

The glider programme, and associated Collaborative Antarctic Science Scheme (CASS) WaveGlider project led by Morales-Maqueda, forms part of Work Package 2 of ORCHESTRA, tasked with understanding subduction processes of heat and carbon in the Southern Ocean. To that end, a glider programme was designed to understand how mixed layers change over the summer period in response to seasonal warming, storm events and submesoscale ocean dynamics. The initially planned deployment of 4 Slocum gliders (2 with microstructure) was supplemented by a SeaGlider (through a collaboration with Louise Biddle and Sebastiaan Swart at the University of Gothenburg) and an autonomous surface vehicle, an SV2 WaveGlider. In addition to the glider measurements, ship-borne high-resolution flux observations were made using the Plymouth Marine Laboratory installed meteorological sensors, and overflights with the BAS MASIN Twin Otter Aircraft over the glider region from Marsh were also scheduled.

The Drake Passage hydrographic observations are part of ORCHESTRA Workpackage 3, on the effect of Southern Ocean interior circulation and exchanges with other ocean basins on heat and carbon transports and storage. We aim to monitor Southern Ocean water masses and circulation pathways and Antarctic Circumpolar Current volume and property transports by continuing a near-annual annual time series of high-quality repeat hydrographic measurements on GO-SHIP line SR1b begun in 1993. The hydrographic measurements are complemented by ocean current and underway surface ocean and meteorological observations and by the deployment of profiling floats which will monitor stratification and deep currents in the Scotia Sea over time.
Chief scientistAlexander Brearley (British Antarctic Survey), David Barnes (British Antarctic Survey), Yvonne L Firing (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)
Coordinating bodyNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Cruise reportRRS James Clark Ross JR17001 (ORCHESTRA) cruise report jr17001.pdf (6.88 MB) 
Ocean/sea areas 
GeneralSouth West Atlantic Ocean (limit 20W)
Southern Ocean
Measurements 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: number of deployments = 1
Description: WaveGlider data. ~1-m air temperature, pressure, wind vector and wind gust vector, surface current vector, GNSS sea surface height at 1 Hz and 5 Hz, ADCP current profile from 7-m below surface down to ~27 m below surface, water temperature at ~7 m. 5-minute lapse-camera photos of sea state from ~1-m height.
Surface measurements underway (T,S)Quantity: activity duration in days = 30
Description: routine underway measurements (surface meteorology, VMADCP, surface temperature, salinity, fluorescense), samples of salinity, oxygen isotopes, eDNA
BathythermographQuantity: number of profiles = 1
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - XBT calibration for CTD
BathythermographQuantity: number of profiles = 1
Description: Marian Cove, King George Island - XBT calibration for CTD
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Drake Passage glider sites Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, microplastics
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Water bottle stationsQuantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
CTD stationsQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Drake Passage glider sites Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, microplastics
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
CTD stationsQuantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurementsQuantity: number of deployments = 6
Description: Glider data from 6 ocean gliders. Dependent on platform, will include temperature, salinity, pressure, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, turbidity
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Drake Passage glider sites Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, microplastics
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: activity duration in days = 30
Description: routine underway measurements (surface meteorology, VMADCP, surface temperature, salinity, fluorescense), samples of salinity, oxygen isotopes, eDNA
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of deployments = 1
Description: WaveGlider data. ~1-m air temperature, pressure, wind vector and wind gust vector, surface current vector, GNSS sea surface height at 1 Hz and 5 Hz, ADCP current profile from 7-m below surface down to ~27 m below surface, water temperature at ~7 m. 5-minute lapse-camera photos of sea state from ~1-m height.
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Current profiler (eg ADCP)Quantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Other physical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of deployments = 6
Description: Glider data from 6 ocean gliders. Dependent on platform, will include temperature, salinity, pressure, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, turbidity
Other physical oceanographic measurementsQuantity: number of deployments = 1
Description: WaveGlider data. ~1-m air temperature, pressure, wind vector and wind gust vector, surface current vector, GNSS sea surface height at 1 Hz and 5 Hz, ADCP current profile from 7-m below surface down to ~27 m below surface, water temperature at ~7 m. 5-minute lapse-camera photos of sea state from ~1-m height.
Chemical oceanography 
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Drake Passage glider sites Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, microplastics
OxygenQuantity: number of deployments = 6
Description: Glider data from 6 ocean gliders. Dependent on platform, will include temperature, salinity, pressure, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, turbidity
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
OxygenQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
OxygenQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
IsotopesQuantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
IsotopesQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
IsotopesQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
IsotopesQuantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Contamination 
Suspended matterQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Drake Passage glider sites Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, microplastics
Suspended matterQuantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Suspended matterQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Suspended matterQuantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
Suspended matterQuantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of deployments = 6
Description: Glider data from 6 ocean gliders. Dependent on platform, will include temperature, salinity, pressure, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, turbidity
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Marguerite Trough Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, chlorophyll, microplastics
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of stations = 6
Description: Drake Passage glider sites Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, microplastics
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)Quantity: number of stations = 5
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 15
Description: Marian Cove, King George Island - 3 plankton hauls at each of 5 sites
ZooplanktonQuantity: number of hauls = 10
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - 2 plankton hauls at each of 5 sites
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of samples = 14
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - 3 grabs at each of 4 sites (plus 2 failed grabs)
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of hauls = 6
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - 1 trawl per site
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Marian Cove, King George Island - 1 trawl per site
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of samples = 16
Description: Marian Cove, King George Island - 5 grabs at each of 3 sites (plus a failed grab)
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of hauls = 5
Description: Marian Cove, King George Island - 20 photos per site
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of image series = 5
Description: 20 photos per site
ZoobenthosQuantity: number of hauls = 6
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - 20 photos per site
Other biological/fisheries measurementQuantity: number of stations = 30
Description: Drake Passage SR1b Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen & Fluorescence profiles; LADCP profiles; water samples for salinity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen isotopes, microplastics
Meteorology 
Occasional standard measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 30
Description: routine underway measurements (surface meteorology, VMADCP, surface temperature, salinity, fluorescense), samples of salinity, oxygen isotopes, eDNA
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: activity duration in days = 30
Description: routine underway measurements (surface meteorology, VMADCP, surface temperature, salinity, fluorescense), samples of salinity, oxygen isotopes, eDNA
Routine standard measurementsQuantity: number of deployments = 1
Description: WaveGlider data. ~1-m air temperature, pressure, wind vector and wind gust vector, surface current vector, GNSS sea surface height at 1 Hz and 5 Hz, ADCP current profile from 7-m below surface down to ~27 m below surface, water temperature at ~7 m. 5-minute lapse-camera photos of sea state from ~1-m height.
Geology and geophysics 
Core - soft bottomQuantity: number of cores = 3
Description: Borgen Bay, Anvers Island - 1 multicore deployments x 3 sites
Core - soft bottomQuantity: number of cores = 5
Description: Marian Cove, King George Island - 1 multicore deployments x 3 sites (+ 2 fails)
Multi-beam echosoundingQuantity: number of surveys = 1
Description: Map made of Borgen Bay, Anvers Island
Multi-beam echosoundingQuantity: number of surveys = 1
Description: multibeam bathymetry
Multi-beam echosoundingQuantity: number of surveys = 1
Description: Map made of Marian Cove, King George Island
Moorings, landers, buoys 
Physical oceanography 
Surface measurements underway (T,S)62° 0' 0" S  65° 10' 59" W — 1 SV2 Waveglider, deployed 30/11/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements62° 0' 0" S  64° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 408‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements61° 37' 0" S  63° 52' 59" W — 1 Slocum 330‘, deployed 01/12/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements63° 10' 0" S  65° 34' 59" W — 1 Slocum 424, recovered 13/12/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements61° 58' 59" S  64° 50' 59" W — 1 Slocum 633‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements61° 58' 59" S  64° 49' 59" W — 1 Slocum 632‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements63° 47' 59" S  66° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 424, deployed 03/12/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements61° 43' 59" S  62° 16' 59" W — 1 Slocum 408 recovered 14/12/2017
Subsurface temperature and salinity measurements62° 0' 0" S  65° 9' 0" W — 1 Seaglider 640‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Current profiler (eg ADCP)62° 0' 0" S  65° 10' 59" W — 1 SV2 Waveglider, deployed 30/11/2017
Neutrally buoyant floats57° 43' 59" S  56° 38' 59" W — Deep Apex 18, deployed 17/12/2017
Neutrally buoyant floats58° 31' 59" S  56° 8' 59" W — Deep Apex 19, deployed 16/12/2017 (failed)
Neutrally buoyant floats58° 2' 59" S  56° 27' 0" W — Arvor AI2600-16FR092, deployed 16/12/2017
Neutrally buoyant floats59° 30' 0" S  55° 32' 59" W — Deep Apex 20, deployed 16/12/2017 (failed)
Neutrally buoyant floats57° 6' 0" S  57° 0' 0" W — Deep Apex 21, deployed 17/12/2017
Neutrally buoyant floats55° 52' 59" S  57° 49' 0" W — Arvor AI2600-16FR093, deployed 18/12/2017
Neutrally buoyant floats56° 46' 59" S  57° 52' 59" W — Arvor AI2600-16FR091, deployed 17/12/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements61° 58' 59" S  64° 49' 59" W — 1 Slocum 632‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements63° 47' 59" S  66° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 424, deployed 03/12/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements61° 43' 59" S  62° 16' 59" W — 1 Slocum 408 recovered 14/12/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements62° 0' 0" S  65° 10' 59" W — 1 SV2 Waveglider, deployed 30/11/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements62° 0' 0" S  65° 9' 0" W — 1 Seaglider 640‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements61° 58' 59" S  64° 50' 59" W — 1 Slocum 633‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements62° 0' 0" S  64° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 408‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements61° 37' 0" S  63° 52' 59" W — 1 Slocum 330‘, deployed 01/12/2017
Other physical oceanographic measurements63° 10' 0" S  65° 34' 59" W — 1 Slocum 424, recovered 13/12/2017
Chemical oceanography 
Oxygen57° 43' 59" S  56° 38' 59" W — Deep Apex 18, deployed 17/12/2017
Oxygen57° 6' 0" S  57° 0' 0" W — Deep Apex 21, deployed 17/12/2017
Oxygen63° 10' 0" S  65° 34' 59" W — 1 Slocum 424, recovered 13/12/2017
Oxygen61° 37' 0" S  63° 52' 59" W — 1 Slocum 330‘, deployed 01/12/2017
Oxygen62° 0' 0" S  64° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 408‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Oxygen63° 47' 59" S  66° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 424, deployed 03/12/2017
Oxygen61° 43' 59" S  62° 16' 59" W — 1 Slocum 408 recovered 14/12/2017
Oxygen62° 0' 0" S  65° 9' 0" W — 1 Seaglider 640‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Biology and fisheries 
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)61° 58' 59" S  64° 50' 59" W — 1 Slocum 633‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)62° 0' 0" S  65° 9' 0" W — 1 Seaglider 640‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)61° 58' 59" S  64° 49' 59" W — 1 Slocum 632‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)62° 0' 0" S  64° 30' 0" W — 1 Slocum 408‘, deployed 30/11/2017
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)61° 37' 0" S  63° 52' 59" W — 1 Slocum 330‘, deployed 01/12/2017
Phytoplankton pigs (eg chlorophyll, fluorescence)61° 43' 59" S  62° 16' 59" W — 1 Slocum 408 recovered 14/12/2017
Meteorology 
Routine standard measurements62° 0' 0" S  65° 10' 59" W — 1 SV2 Waveglider, deployed 30/11/2017
Data held at BODC Get data
Discrete samples 
45  CTD frame plus rosette sampler
12  Expendable Bathythermograph