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Metadata Report for BODC Series Reference Number 1018080

Metadata Summary

Data Description

Data Category CTD or STD cast
Instrument Type
Sea-Bird SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor  dissolved gas sensors
Chelsea Technologies Group Aquatracka fluorometer  fluorometers
Sea-Bird SBE 911plus CTD  CTD; water temperature sensor; salinity sensor
Chelsea Technologies Group Alphatracka transmissometer  transmissometers
Instrument Mounting lowered unmanned submersible
Originating Country United Kingdom
Originator Dr Brian King
Originating Organization National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
Processing Status banked
Online delivery of data Download available - Ocean Data View (ODV) format
Project(s) Rapid Climate Change Programme
Oceans 2025
Oceans 2025 Theme 1 WP1.2
Oceans 2025 Theme 10 SO3: MOC

Data Identifiers

Originator's Identifier CTD_DI346_113_2DB
BODC Series Reference 1018080

Time Co-ordinates(UT)

Start Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2010-02-09 23:28
End Time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm) 2010-02-10 01:25
Nominal Cycle Interval 2.0 decibars

Spatial Co-ordinates

Latitude 24.51120 N ( 24° 30.7' N )
Longitude 25.54160 W ( 25° 32.5' W )
Positional Uncertainty Unspecified
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Depth 2.98 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Depth 5295.81 m
Minimum Sensor or Sampling Height 14.36 m
Maximum Sensor or Sampling Height 5307.2 m
Sea Floor Depth 5310.18 m
Sea Floor Depth Source -
Sensor or Sampling Distribution Variable common depth - All sensors are grouped effectively at the same depth, but this depth varies significantly during the series
Sensor or Sampling Depth Datum Approximate - Depth is only approximate
Sea Floor Depth Datum Instantaneous - Depth measured below water line or instantaneous water body surface


BODC CODERankUnitsTitle
ACYCAA011DimensionlessSequence number
CNDCST011Siemens per metreElectrical conductivity of the water body by CTD
CNDCST021Siemens per metreElectrical conductivity of the water body by CTD (sensor 2)
CPHLPM011Milligrams per cubic metreConcentration of chlorophyll-a {chl-a CAS 479-61-8} per unit volume of the water body [particulate >unknown phase] by in-situ chlorophyll fluorometer and manufacturer's calibration applied
DOXYSC011Micromoles per litreConcentration of oxygen {O2 CAS 7782-44-7} per unit volume of the water body [dissolved plus reactive particulate phase] by Sea-Bird SBE 43 sensor and calibration against sample data
POPTDR011PercentTransmittance (red light wavelength) per 25cm of the water body by 25cm path length red light transmissometer
PRESPR011DecibarsPressure (spatial coordinate) exerted by the water body by profiling pressure sensor and correction to read zero at sea level
PSALCC011DimensionlessPractical salinity of the water body by CTD and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm and calibration against independent measurements
PSALCU021DimensionlessPractical salinity of the water body by CTD (second sensor) and computation using UNESCO 1983 algorithm and NO calibration against independent measurements
TEMPCU011Degrees CelsiusTemperature of the water body by CTD and NO verification against independent measurements
TEMPCU021Degrees CelsiusTemperature of the water body by CTD (second sensor) and NO verification against independent measurements
TOKGPR011Litres per kilogramConversion factor (volume to mass) for the water body by CTD and computation of density (in-situ potential temperature surface pressure) reciprocal from pressure, temperature and salinity

Definition of Rank

  • Rank 1 is a one-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 2 is a two-dimensional parameter
  • Rank 0 is a one-dimensional parameter describing the second dimension of a two-dimensional parameter (e.g. bin depths for moored ADCP data)

Problem Reports

No Problem Report Found in the Database

Data Access Policy

Open Data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

You must always use the following attribution statement to acknowledge the source of the information: "Contains data supplied by Natural Environment Research Council."

Narrative Documents

Sea-Bird Dissolved Oxygen Sensor SBE 43 and SBE 43F

The SBE 43 is a dissolved oxygen sensor designed for marine applications. It incorporates a high-performance Clark polarographic membrane with a pump that continuously plumbs water through it, preventing algal growth and the development of anoxic conditions when the sensor is taking measurements.

Two configurations are available: SBE 43 produces a voltage output and can be incorporated with any Sea-Bird CTD that accepts input from a 0-5 volt auxiliary sensor, while the SBE 43F produces a frequency output and can be integrated with an SBE 52-MP (Moored Profiler CTD) or used for OEM applications. The specifications below are common to both.


Housing Plastic or titanium

0.5 mil- fast response, typical for profile applications

1 mil- slower response, typical for moored applications

Depth rating

600 m (plastic) or 7000 m (titanium)

10500 m titanium housing available on request

Measurement range 120% of surface saturation
Initial accuracy 2% of saturation
Typical stability 0.5% per 1000 h

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

Oceans 2025 Cruise D346 CTD instrument description

CTD unit and auxiliary sensors

The CTD system used on cruise D346 was a NOC 24-way stainless steel frame system consisting of a Sea-Bird 911 plus, with a Sea-Bird 32 carousel. The CTD frame was equipped with 20L Niskin bottles. In addition the CTD was fitted with a number of scientific sensors as detailed in the table below. During the cruise various problems with sensors required them to be replaced on the CTD frame (see Section 1 of the D346 cruise report). The table below shows which sensors were attached to the CTD frame and on which casts.

Sensor Serial Number Casts Last calibration date
SBE 911+ deck unit - 1-135,200,202 -
SBE 32 carousel - 1-135,200,202 -
Primary Temperature SBE-03P 4872 1-135,200,202 6 October 2009
Secondary Temperature SBE-03P 4381 1-67,69-135,200,202 25 August 2009
Secondary Temperature SBE-03P 2674 68 08 May 2009
Primary Conductivity SBE-04C 3258 1-41 5 October 2009
Primary Conductivity SBE-04C 3054 42-77,200 25 June 2009
Primary Conductivity SBE-04C 2231 78-135,202 8 May 2009
Secondary Conductivity SBE-04C 3052 1-95,200 10 September 2009
Secondary Conductivity SBE-04C 3258 96-135,200,202 05 October 2009
Dissolved oxygen sensor SBE-43 1624 1-36 22 April 2009
Dissolved oxygen sensor SBE-43 0621 37-135,200,202 17 October 2008
Pressure-Digiquartz 90573 1-135,200,202 20 October 2008
Benthos PSA-916T Altimeter 47597 1-135 -
Chelsea Aquatracka Fluorometer 088095 1-63,70-135,202 28 May 2009
Chelsea Alphatracka Transmissometer 161048 1-63,70-135,202 28 May 2008
RDI 300kHz Workhorse LADCP (aluminium cased) 9191 1-63,114-135 26 May 2009
RDI 300kHz Workhorse LADCP (titanium cased) 13399 70-72 19 November 2009
RDI 300kHz Workhorse LADCP (titanium cased) 13400 73-113,202 19 November 2009

Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 911 and SBE 917 series CTD profilers

The SBE 911 and SBE 917 series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) units are used to collect hydrographic profiles, including temperature, conductivity and pressure as standard. Each profiler consists of an underwater unit and deck unit or SEARAM. Auxiliary sensors, such as fluorometers, dissolved oxygen sensors and transmissometers, and carousel water samplers are commonly added to the underwater unit.

Underwater unit

The CTD underwater unit (SBE 9 or SBE 9 plus) comprises a protective cage (usually with a carousel water sampler), including a main pressure housing containing power supplies, acquisition electronics, telemetry circuitry, and a suite of modular sensors. The original SBE 9 incorporated Sea-Bird's standard modular SBE 3 temperature sensor and SBE 4 conductivity sensor, and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. The conductivity cell was connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit that could include auxiliary sensors. Each SBE 9 unit was custom built to individual specification. The SBE 9 was replaced in 1997 by an off-the-shelf version, termed the SBE 9 plus, that incorporated the SBE 3 plus (or SBE 3P) temperature sensor, SBE 4C conductivity sensor and a Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor. Sensors could be connected to a pump-fed plastic tubing circuit or stand-alone.

Temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors

The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors supplied with Sea-Bird CTD systems have outputs in the form of variable frequencies, which are measured using high-speed parallel counters. The resulting count totals are converted to numeric representations of the original frequencies, which bear a direct relationship to temperature, conductivity or pressure. Sampling frequencies for these sensors are typically set at 24 Hz.

The temperature sensing element is a glass-coated thermistor bead, pressure-protected inside a stainless steel tube, while the conductivity sensing element is a cylindrical, flow-through, borosilicate glass cell with three internal platinum electrodes. Thermistor resistance or conductivity cell resistance, respectively, is the controlling element in an optimized Wien Bridge oscillator circuit, which produces a frequency output that can be converted to a temperature or conductivity reading. These sensors are available with depth ratings of 6800 m (aluminium housing) or 10500 m (titanium housing). The Paroscientific Digiquartz pressure sensor comprises a quartz crystal resonator that responds to pressure-induced stress, and temperature is measured for thermal compensation of the calculated pressure.

Additional sensors

Optional sensors for dissolved oxygen, pH, light transmission, fluorescence and others do not require the very high levels of resolution needed in the primary CTD channels, nor do these sensors generally offer variable frequency outputs. Accordingly, signals from the auxiliary sensors are acquired using a conventional voltage-input multiplexed A/D converter (optional). Some Sea-Bird CTDs use a strain gauge pressure sensor (Senso-Metrics) in which case their pressure output data is in the same form as that from the auxiliary sensors as described above.

Deck unit or SEARAM

Each underwater unit is connected to a power supply and data logging system: the SBE 11 (or SBE 11 plus) deck unit allows real-time interfacing between the deck and the underwater unit via a conductive wire, while the submersible SBE 17 (or SBE 17 plus) SEARAM plugs directly into the underwater unit and data are downloaded on recovery of the CTD. The combination of SBE 9 and SBE 17 or SBE 11 are termed SBE 917 or SBE 911, respectively, while the combinations of SBE 9 plus and SBE 17 plus or SBE 11 plus are termed SBE 917 plus or SBE 911 plus.


Specifications for the SBE 9 plus underwater unit are listed below:

Parameter Range Initial accuracy Resolution at 24 Hz Response time
Temperature -5 to 35°C 0.001°C 0.0002°C 0.065 sec
Conductivity 0 to 7 S m-1 0.0003 S m-1 0.00004 S m-1 0.065 sec (pumped)
Pressure 0 to full scale (1400, 2000, 4200, 6800 or 10500 m) 0.015% of full scale 0.001% of full scale 0.015 sec

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

Aquatracka fluorometer

The Chelsea Instruments Aquatracka is a logarithmic response fluorometer. It uses a pulsed (5.5 Hz) xenon light source discharging between 320 and 800 nm through a blue filter with a peak transmission of 420 nm and a bandwidth at half maximum of 100 nm. A red filter with sharp cut off, 10% transmission at 664 nm and 678 nm, is used to pass chlorophyll-a fluorescence to the sample photodiode.

The instrument may be deployed either in a through-flow tank, on a CTD frame or moored with a data logging package.

Further details can be found in the manufacturer's specification sheet.

Chelsea Technologies Group ALPHAtracka and ALPHAtracka II transmissometers

The Chelsea Technologies Group ALPHAtracka (the Mark I) and its successor, the ALPHAtracka II (the Mark II), are both accurate (< 0.3 % fullscale) transmissometers that measure the beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm. Green (565 nm), yellow (590 nm) and blue (470 nm) wavelength variants are available on special order.

The instrument consists of a Transmitter/Reference Assembly and a Detector Assembly aligned and spaced apart by an open support frame. The housing and frame are both manufactured in titanium and are pressure rated to 6000 m depth.

The Transmitter/Reference housing is sealed by an end cap. Inside the housing an LED light source emits a collimated beam through a sealed window. The Detector housing is also sealed by an end cap. A signal photodiode is placed behind a sealed window to receive the collimated beam from the Transmitter.

The primary difference between the ALPHAtracka and ALPHAtracka II is that the Alphatracka II is implemented with surface-mount technology; this has enabled a much smaller diameter pressure housing to be used while retaining exactly the same optical train as in the Mark I. Data from the Mark II version are thus fully compatible with that already obtained with the Mark I. The performance of the Mark II is further enhanced by two electronic developments from Chelsea Technologies Group - firstly, all items are locked in a signal nulling loop of near infinite gain and, secondly, the signal output linearity is inherently defined by digital circuitry only.

Among other advantages noted above, these features ensure that the optical intensity of the Mark II, indicated by the output voltage, is accurately represented by a straight line interpolation between a reading near full-scale under known conditions and a zero reading when blanked off.

For optimum measurements in a wide range of environmental conditions, the Mark I and Mark II are available in 5 cm, 10 cm and 25 cm path length versions. Output is default factory set to 2.5 volts but can be adjusted to 5 volts on request.

Further details about the Mark II instrument are available from the Chelsea Technologies Group ALPHAtrackaII specification sheet.

Oceans 2025 Cruise D346 BODC CTD data processing

The data arrived at BODC in 137 MSTAR format files representing the CTD casts conducted during cruise D346. The data contained in the files are the downcast data averaged to a 2db pressure grid. The casts were reformatted to BODC's internal netCDF format. The following table shows the mapping of variables within the MSTAR files to appropriate BODC parameter codes:

Originator's variable Units Originator's description BODC parameter code Units Comments
press dbar Pressure exerted by the water column PRESPR01 dbar Manufacturer's calibration applied.
temp °C Temperature of the water column by CTD TEMPCU01 °C ITS-90
This parameter represents the first choice sensor data, which was collected from the secondary temperature sensor for casts 1-49 and the primary temperature sensor for casts 50-135, 200 and 202.
temp1 °C Temperature of the water column by CTD (primary sensor) TEMPCU02 °C ITS-90
Data not transferred for casts 50-135, 200 and 202 as these data were deemed to be the first choice sensor data and have been duplicated in the temp channel.
temp2 °C Temperature of the water column by CTD (secondary sensor) TEMPCU02 °C ITS-90
Data not transferred for casts 1-49 as these data were deemed to be the first choice sensor data and have been duplicated in the temp channel.
cond mS/cm Electrical conductivity of the water column CNDCST01 S/m /10
Calibrated by data originator with discrete salinity samples.This parameter represents the first choice sensor data, which was collected from the secondary conductivity sensor for casts 1-49 and the primary conductivity sensor for casts 50-135, 200 and 202.
cond1 mS/cm Electrical conductivity of the water column (Primary sensor) CNDCST02 S/m /10
Data not transferred for casts 50-135, 200 and 202 as these data were deemed to be the first choice sensor data and have been duplicated in the cond channel
cond2 mS/cm Electrical conductivity of the water column (Secondary sensor) CNDCST02 S/m /10
Data not transferred for casts 1-49 as these data were deemed to be the first choice sensor data and have been duplicated in the cond channel.
psal - Practical salinity of the water column PSALCC01 - Calculated by data originator using calibrated conductivity.
This parameter represents the first choice sensor data, which was derived from data collected from the secondary conductivity sensor for casts 1-49 and the primary conductivity sensor for casts 50-135, 200 and 202.
psal1 - Practical salinity of the water column (Primary sensor data) PSALCU02 - Calculated by data originator using uncalibrated conductivity.
Data not transferred for casts 50-135, 200 and 202 as these data were deemed to be the first choice data and have been duplicated in the psal channel
psal2 - Practical salinity of the water column (Secondary sensor data) PSALCU02 - Calculated by data originator using uncalibrated conductivity.
Data not transferred for casts 1-49 as these data were deemed to be the first choice data and have been duplicated in the psal channel
oxygen µmol/kg Concentration of oxygen per unit volume of the water body. DOXYSC01 µmol/l Unit conversion applied during transfer.
Calibrated by data originator using discrete oxygen samples.
fluor µg/l Concentration of chlorophyll-a per unit volume of the water body CPHLPM01 mg/m3 No unit conversion is necessary as µg/l are equivalent to mg/m3
transmittance % Transmittance per length of water body POPTDR01 % -
potemp °C Potential temperature of the water column POTMCV01 °C Not transferred
potemp1 °C Potential temperature of the water column (Primary sensor) POTMCV02 °C Not transferred
potemp2 °C Potential temperature of the water column (Secondary sensor) POTMCV02 °C Not transferred
depth metres Depth below surface converted from pressure using UNESCO algorithm DEPHPR01 metres Not transferred
altimeter metres Depth below surface by altimeter - - Not transferred
time seconds Time in seconds since the origin defined in the metadata field data_time_origin - - Not transferred

The reformatted data were visualised using the in-house EDSERPLO software. Suspect data were marked by adding an appropriate quality control flag, and missing data marked by setting both the data to an appropriate value and setting the quality control flag. In addition any data outside of the allocated range for each parameter have been flagged as null and values set to absent data value for that parameter.

Detailed metadata and documentation were compiled and linked to the data.

Oceans 2025 Cruise D346 Originator's CTD data processing

Sampling Strategy

A total of 137 CTD casts were performed during the cruise which aimed to attempt to calculate the transport of water and its constituents along a latitude of 24°N, completing a section across the Atlantic from North America to Africa, beginning and ending at the edge of the continental shelf. Of the 137 CTD stations occupied, 2 (Casts 200 and 202) were bottle blank stations run for the CFC team, so the principle data collected along the 24°N section comprised of 135 stations. In addition a number of instruments were mounted onto the CTD frame including an LADCP, fluorometer, transmissometer and a dissolved oxygen sensor. Instruments not pressure rated below 6000m were removed for the duration of the deeper casts (Casts 64-69 and 200). Some data for certain parameters are, therefore, unavailable for deeper casts. The chronological order of the casts were as follows: 1-64, 200, 65-100, 202, 101-135.

Data Processing

Raw CTD data were transferred from the Sea-Bird deck unit to a LINUX machine via Sea-Bird software. The binary files are converted using Sea-Bird processing software (SBE Data Processing v7.19). ALIGNCTD was run to advance the oxygen measurements by 5 seconds, ensuring the calculations of dissolved oxygen concentration are made using measurements from the same parcel of water. CELLTM was run to minimise salinity spiking in steep vertical gradients applying two constants; the thermal anomaly amplitude alpha=0.03 and thermal anomaly time constant 1/ß=7. The ASCII files were converted to MSTAR format, averaging 24Hz data to 1Hz data, and calculating salinity and potential temperature in addition to recording the first choice conductivity-temperature sensor pair for each station.

A correction for downcast-upcast sensor hysteresis was made during the MSTAR processing, applying an algorithm provided by Sea-Bird for oxygen concentration values measured by the SBE 43 sensor.

The algorithm used was as follows:

Oxnewconc = {(Oxygenconc (i) + (Oxnewconc (i-1) x C x D))-(Oxygenconc (i-1) x C)}/D

where D = 1 + H1 x (exponential(P(i)/H2)-1) and C = exponential(-1 x (Time(i)-Time(i-1))/H3)

and i = indexing variable, P = pressure (db), Time = time (seconds), H1 = amplitude of hysteresis correction function (-0.028 for the first oxygen sensor and 0.037 for the second), H2 = function constant (5000 for both oxygen sensors), H3 = time constant for hysteresis (2500 for the first and 1450 for the second oxygen sensor).

In addition a number of minor spurious features were identified in the oxygen and conductivity channels, including spikes associated with CTD telemetry failures and spikes at the beginning and end of a cast where bad start and end scan numbers were chosen. Such problems were resolved during processing by adjusting the start and end scan numbers of files to omit bad data or by removing spikes using a median de-spiking routine.

Further details of this processing routine can be found in the D346 cruise report.

Field Calibrations

Upcast conductivity from the first choice sensor was calibrated against conductivity derived from bottle samples. The final calibration ratios applied to the secondary, second primary and third primary conductivity sensors were 0.9999719, 1.0000574 and 1.0000285, respectively. In addition bottle-CTD conductivity residuals showed some structure against pressure believed to be related to sensor performance. Calibrations were, therefore, applied by correcting conductivity values using an additive factor decided by a pressure lookup table. This table was created for each sensor by calculating median offset in pressure bins. Application of the calibration ratios and pressure corrections reduced rms offset of salinity offset from 0.00128, 0.00238 and 0.00202 to 0.00073, 0.00119 and 0.00064 for the secondary, second primary and third primary conductivity sensors, respectively.

Following the hysteresis correction applied to the oxygen data, upcast oxygen concentrations for each sensor were calibrated against oxygen concentrations derived from bottle samples. For the first oxygen sensor, bottle and CTD oxygen showed a clear linear relationship. Subsequently a multiplicative correction factor, calculated as the median ratio between bottle and CTD oxygen, was applied. This was calculated and applied in bulk for stations 1-22. For stations 23-36 the correction was calculated and applied on a station by station basis to account for the gradual degradation in sensor performance over this period. For the second oxygen sensor, bottle oxygen and CTD oxygen concentration offset was typically > 10µmol/kg, however, a linear relationship was less obvious. Bottle-CTD offset was reduced to ±2µmol/kg by applying a combined second order pressure and first order temperature dependent offset to all data with a potential temperature <7.5°C with the pressure-temperature offset function calculated using a least-squares approach. For data with potential temperature >7.5°C, a simple offset of 7µmol/kg was added.

Project Information

RAPID- Will the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation Halt? (RAPID-WATCH)

RAPID-WATCH (2007-2014) is a continuation programme of the Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) programme. It aims to deliver a robust and scientifically credible assessment of the risk to the climate of UK and Europe arising from a rapid change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The programme will also assess the need for a long-term observing system that could detect major MOC changes, narrow uncertainty in projections of future change, and possibly be the start of an 'early warning' prediction system.

The effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic MOC is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for the existing collaborations started during RAPID for the observational arrays.

Scientific Objectives

  • To deliver a decade-long time series (2004-2014) of calibrated and quality-controlled measurements of the Atlantic MOC from the RAPID-WATCH arrays.
  • To exploit the data from the RAPID-WATCH arrays and elsewhere to determine and interpret recent changes in the Atlantic MOC, assess the risk of rapid climate change, and investigate the potential for predictions of the MOC and its impacts on climate.

This work will be carried out in collaboration with the Hadley Centre in the UK and through international partnerships.

Mooring Arrays

The RAPID-WATCH arrays are the existing 26°N MOC observing system array (RAPIDMOC) and the WAVE array that monitors the Deep Western Boundary Current. The data from these arrays will work towards meeting the first scientific objective.

The RAPIDMOC array consists of moorings focused in three geographical regions (sub-arrays) along 26.5° N: Eastern Boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Western Boundary. The Western Boundary sub-array has moorings managed by both the UK and US scientists. The other sub-arrays are solely led by the UK scientists. The lead PI is Dr Stuart Cunningham of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK.

The WAVE array consists of one line of moorings off Halifax, Nova Scotia. The line will be serviced in partnership with the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Halifax, Canada. The lead PI is Dr Chris Hughes of the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Liverpool, UK.

All arrays will be serviced (recovered and redeployed) either on an annual or biennial basis using Research Vessels from the UK, US and Canada.

Modelling Projects

The second scientific objective will be addressed through numerical modelling studies designed to answer four questions:

  • How can we exploit data from the RAPID-WATCH arrays to obtain estimates of the MOC and related variables?
  • What do the observations from the RAPID-WATCH arrays and other sources tell us about the nature and causes of recent changes in the Atlantic Ocean?
  • What are the implications of RAPID-WATCH array data and other recent observations for estimates of the risk due to rapid change in the MOC?
  • Could we use RAPID-WATCH and other observations to help predict future changes in the MOC and climate?

Oceans 2025 Theme 1, Work Package 1.2: Atlantic Circulation and Transports

This Work Package is run by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS) and aims to establish whether the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is slowing down, and to relate this to changes in regional storage of heat, freshwater and carbon.

More detailed information on this Work Package is available at pages 8 - 10 of the official Oceans 2025 Theme 1 document: Oceans 2025 Theme 1


Oceans 2025 - The NERC Marine Centres' Strategic Research Programme 2007-2012

Who funds the programme?

The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funds the Oceans 2025 programme, which was originally planned in the context of NERC's 2002-2007 strategy and later realigned to NERC's subsequent strategy (Next Generation Science for Planet Earth; NERC 2007).

Who is involved in the programme?

The Oceans 2025 programme was designed by and is to be implemented through seven leading UK marine centres. The marine centres work together in coordination and are also supported by cooperation and input from government bodies, universities and other partners. The seven marine centres are:

  • National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS)
  • Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML)
  • Marine Biological Association (MBA)
  • Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Marine Science (SAHFOS)
  • Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL)
  • Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS)
  • Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU)

Oceans2025 provides funding to three national marine facilities, which provide services to the wider UK marine community, in addition to the Oceans 2025 community. These facilities are:

  • British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), hosted at POL
  • Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted at POL
  • Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP), hosted at SAMS

The NERC-run Strategic Ocean Funding Initiative (SOFI) provides additional support to the programme by funding additional research projects and studentships that closely complement the Oceans 2025 programme, primarily through universities.

What is the programme about?

Oceans 2025 sets out to address some key challenges that face the UK as a result of a changing marine environment. The research funded through the programme sets out to increase understanding of the size, nature and impacts of these changes, with the aim to:

  • improve knowledge of how the seas behave, not just now but in the future;
  • help assess what that might mean for the Earth system and for society;
  • assist in developing sustainable solutions for the management of marine resources for future generations;
  • enhance the research capabilities and facilities available for UK marine science.

In order to address these aims there are nine science themes supported by the Oceans 2025 programme:

  • Climate, circulation and sea level (Theme 1)
  • Marine biogeochemical cycles (Theme 2)
  • Shelf and coastal processes (Theme 3)
  • Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (Theme 4)
  • Continental margins and deep ocean (Theme 5)
  • Sustainable marine resources (Theme 6)
  • Technology development (Theme 8)
  • Next generation ocean prediction (Theme 9)
  • Integration of sustained observations in the marine environment (Theme 10)

In the original programme proposal there was a theme on health and human impacts (Theme 7). The elements of this Theme have subsequently been included in Themes 3 and 9.

When is the programme active?

The programme started in April 2007 with funding for 5 years.

Brief summary of the programme fieldwork/data

Programme fieldwork and data collection are to be achieved through:

  • physical, biological and chemical parameters sampling throughout the North and South Atlantic during collaborative research cruises aboard NERC's research vessels RRS Discovery, RRS James Cook and RRS James Clark Ross;
  • the Continuous Plankton Recorder being deployed by SAHFOS in the North Atlantic and North Pacific on 'ships of opportunity';
  • physical parameters measured and relayed in near real-time by fixed moorings and ARGO floats;
  • coastal and shelf sea observatory data (Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory (LBCO) and Western Channel Observatory (WCO)) using the RV Prince Madog and RV Quest.

The data is to be fed into models for validation and future projections. Greater detail can be found in the Theme documents.

Oceans 2025 Theme 10, Sustained Observation Activity 3: Monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is the key component of ocean circulation in the Atlantic responding to climate change. Under the NERC directed programme Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) two arrays of instruments have been positioned in the ocean to monitor the MOC, one at 26.5 °N to capture the southward flow at depth, and the Western Atlantic Variability Experiment (WAVE) array across the Canadian-US continental slope, closer to the presumed source variations. Sustained Observation Activity (SO) 3 will continue these measurements to observe the strength and structure of the MOC, working closely with Oceans 2025 Theme 1 and the RAPID-WATCH directed programme.

There are two elements to this SO activity. SO 3.1. relates to the E-W mooring array in the mid-North Atlantic at 26.5 °N while SO 3.2. is concerned with the Western Atlantic array between Cape Cod and the Grand Banks.

Aims and Purpose of SO 3.1.

  • The purpose of the observing system is to measure and understand the current state and variability of the MOC. The results will help assess the risks of rapid climate change from a slow down in the MOC, by providing the necessary data for coupled climate models to predict future climate. This work will be carried out by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS).

Aims and Purpose of SO 3.2.

  • The overall aim is to maintain and service the WAVE monitoring array, to measure changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation along the western boundary of the North Atlantic. This array complements the NOC 26.5 °N meridional section by providing information from north of the Gulf Stream, closer to the presumed source of variations in MOC. This work will be supported by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL).

More detailed information on this Work Package is available at pages 11 - 14 of the official Oceans 2025 Theme 10 document: Oceans 2025 Theme 10


Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) Programme

Rapid Climate Change (RAPID) is a £20 million, six-year (2001-2007) programme of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The programme aims to improve our ability to quantify the probability and magnitude of future rapid change in climate, with a main (but not exclusive) focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean's Thermohaline Circulation.

Scientific Objectives

  • To establish a pre-operational prototype system to continuously observe the strength and structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC).
  • To support long-term direct observations of water, heat, salt, and ice transports at critical locations in the northern North Atlantic, to quantify the atmospheric and other (e.g. river run-off, ice sheet discharge) forcing of these transports, and to perform process studies of ocean mixing at northern high latitudes.
  • To construct well-calibrated and time-resolved palaeo data records of past climate change, including error estimates, with a particular emphasis on the quantification of the timing and magnitude of rapid change at annual to centennial time-scales.
  • To develop and use high-resolution physical models to synthesise observational data.
  • To apply a hierarchy of modelling approaches to understand the processes that connect changes in ocean convection and its atmospheric forcing to the large-scale transports relevant to the modulation of climate.
  • To understand, using model experimentation and data (palaeo and present day), the atmosphere's response to large changes in Atlantic northward heat transport, in particular changes in storm tracks, storm frequency, storm strengths, and energy and moisture transports.
  • To use both instrumental and palaeo data for the quantitative testing of models' abilities to reproduce climate variability and rapid changes on annual to centennial time-scales. To explore the extent to which these data can provide direct information about the thermohaline circulation (THC) and other possible rapid changes in the climate system and their impact.
  • To quantify the probability and magnitude of potential future rapid climate change, and the uncertainties in these estimates.


Overall 38 projects have been funded by the RAPID programme. These include 4 which focus on Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), and 5 international projects jointly funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the Research Council of Norway and NERC.

The RAPID effort to design a system to continuously monitor the strength and structure of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is being matched by comparative funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) for collaborative projects reviewed jointly with the NERC proposals. Three projects were funded by NSF.

A proportion of RAPID funding as been made available for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) as part of NERC's Small Business Research Initiative (SBRI). The SBRI aims to stimulate innovation in the economy by encouraging more high-tech small firms to start up or to develop new research capacities. As a result 4 projects have been funded.

Monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5N (RAPIDMOC)

Scientific Rationale

There is a northward transport of heat throughout the Atlantic, reaching a maximum of 1.3PW (25% of the global heat flux) around 24.5°N. The heat transport is a balance of the northward flux of a warm Gulf Stream, and a southward flux of cooler thermocline and cold North Atlantic Deep Water that is known as the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). As a consequence of the MOC northwest Europe enjoys a mild climate for its latitude: however abrupt rearrangement of the Atlantic Circulation has been shown in climate models and in palaeoclimate records to be responsible for a cooling of European climate of between 5-10°C. A principal objective of the RAPID programme is the development of a pre-operational prototype system that will continuously observe the strength and structure of the MOC. An initiative has been formed to fulfill this objective and consists of three interlinked projects:

  • A mooring array spanning the Atlantic at 26.5°N to measure the southward branch of the MOC (Hirschi et al., 2003 and Baehr et al., 2004).
  • Additional moorings deployed in the western boundary along 26.5°N (by Prof. Bill Johns, University of Miami) to resolve transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current (Bryden et al., 2005). These moorings allow surface-to-bottom density profiles along the western boundary, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and eastern boundary to be observed. As a result, the transatlantic pressure gradient can be continuously measured.
  • Monitoring of the northward branch of the MOC using submarine telephone cables in the Florida Straits (Baringer et al., 2001) led by Dr Molly Baringer (NOAA/AOML/PHOD).

The entire monitoring array system created by the three projects will be recovered and redeployed annually until 2008 under RAPID funding. From 2008 until 2014 the array will continue to be serviced annually under RAPID-WATCH funding.

The array will be focussed on three regions, the Eastern Boundary (EB), the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Western Boundary (WB). The geographical extent of these regions are as follows:

  • Eastern Boundary (EB) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 23.5°N, 25.5°W and the north-west corner at 29.0°N, 12.0°W
  • Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 23.0°N, 52.1°W and the north-west corner at 26.5°N, 40.0°W
  • Western Boundary (WB) array defined as a box with the south-east corner at 26.0°N, 77.5°W and the north-west corner at 27.5°N, 69.5°W


Baehr, J., Hirschi, J., Beismann, J.O. and Marotzke, J. (2004) Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic: A model-based array design study. Journal of Marine Research, Volume 62, No 3, pp 283-312.

Baringer, M.O'N. and Larsen, J.C. (2001) Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27N Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 28, No 16, pp3179-3182

Bryden, H.L., Johns, W.E. and Saunders, P.M. (2005) Deep Western Boundary Current East of Abaco: Mean structure and transport. Journal of Marine Research, Volume 63, No 1, pp 35-57.

Hirschi, J., Baehr, J., Marotzke J., Stark J., Cunningham S.A. and Beismann J.O. (2003) A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 30, No 7, article number 1413 (DOI 10.1029/2002GL016776)

Data Activity or Cruise Information


Cruise Name D346
Departure Date 2010-01-05
Arrival Date 2010-02-19
Principal Scientist(s)Brian A King (National Oceanography Centre, Southampton)
Ship RRS Discovery

Complete Cruise Metadata Report is available here

Fixed Station Information

Fixed Station Information

Station Name25 N Hydrographic Transatlantic section
CategoryOffshore route/traverse

25° N Hydrographic Transatlantic section

The hydrographic transatlantic section at 25° has been occupied 6 times, namely in 1957, 1981, 1992, 1998, 2004 and 2010. The section is an attempt to calculate the transports of water and its constituents (heat, salinity, nutrients, biological productivity) along this latitude, and to compare the data so that the degree of change in the North Atlantic transports can be revealed.

Map of stations

BODC image

The station positions for all the occupied sections are shown in the above figures. Sections occupied in 1957, 1981, 1992, 1998 and 2004 are shown in the upper figure. The section occupied in 2010 is shown in the lower figure.

The 1957 and 1992 sections each went zonally along 24.5° N from the African coast to the Bahama Islands. Because of diplomatic clearance issues, the 1981, 1998, 2004 and 2010 sections angled southwestward from the African coast at about 28° N to join the 24.5° N section at about 23° W. The 1998, 2004 and 2010 sections angled northwestward at about 73° W to finish the section along 26.5° N. The 2010 section deviated from the previous sections across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in order to sample the deepest channel and capture the passage of the deep water across the MAR.

Table 1: Occupations of the section

Year Cruise Reference
1957 - Fuglister (1960)
1981 - Roemmich and Wunsch (1985)
1992 HE06 Parilla et al. (1994)
1998 - Baringer and Molinari (1999)
2004 D279 Bryden et al. (2005b)
2010 D346 -


Baringer, M. O. N. and R. L. Molinari, 1999. Atlantic Ocean baroclinic heat flux at 24 to 26°N. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 353-356.

Bryden, H. L., H. R. Longworth, and S. Cunningham, 2005b. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, 655-657.

Fuglister, F. C., 1960. Atlantic Ocean Atlas of Temperature and Salinity Profiles and Data from the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958. Vol. 1, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Atlas Series, WHOI, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Parilla, G., A.Lavin, H. Bryden, M. Garcia, and R. Millard, 1994. Rising temperatures in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean over the past 35 years. Nature, 369, 48-51.

Roemmich, D. and C. Wunsch, 1985. Two transatlantic sections: meridional circulation and heat flux in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research, 32, 619-664.

Related Fixed Station activities are detailed in Appendix 1

BODC Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
Blank Unqualified
< Below detection limit
> In excess of quoted value
A Taxonomic flag for affinis (aff.)
B Beginning of CTD Down/Up Cast
C Taxonomic flag for confer (cf.)
D Thermometric depth
E End of CTD Down/Up Cast
G Non-taxonomic biological characteristic uncertainty
H Extrapolated value
I Taxonomic flag for single species (sp.)
K Improbable value - unknown quality control source
L Improbable value - originator's quality control
M Improbable value - BODC quality control
N Null value
O Improbable value - user quality control
P Trace/calm
Q Indeterminate
R Replacement value
S Estimated value
T Interpolated value
U Uncalibrated
W Control value
X Excessive difference

SeaDataNet Quality Control Flags

The following single character qualifying flags may be associated with one or more individual parameters with a data cycle:

Flag Description
0 no quality control
1 good value
2 probably good value
3 probably bad value
4 bad value
5 changed value
6 value below detection
7 value in excess
8 interpolated value
9 missing value
A value phenomenon uncertain
B nominal value
Q value below limit of quantification

Appendix 1: 25 N Hydrographic Transatlantic section

Related series for this Fixed Station are presented in the table below. Further information can be found by following the appropriate links.

If you are interested in these series, please be aware we offer a multiple file download service. Should your credentials be insufficient for automatic download, the service also offers a referral to our Enquiries Officer who may be able to negotiate access.

Series IdentifierData CategoryStart date/timeStart positionCruise
1016988CTD or STD cast2010-01-08 18:54:0926.5012 N, 76.9342 WRRS Discovery D346
1017003CTD or STD cast2010-01-08 20:35:5226.4989 N, 76.8648 WRRS Discovery D346
1017015CTD or STD cast2010-01-08 23:27:4026.5328 N, 76.8162 WRRS Discovery D346
1017027CTD or STD cast2010-01-09 03:13:1826.5032 N, 76.7821 WRRS Discovery D346
1017039CTD or STD cast2010-01-09 06:55:5826.4988 N, 76.8008 WRRS Discovery D346
1017040CTD or STD cast2010-01-09 10:02:5126.4957 N, 76.7613 WRRS Discovery D346
1017052CTD or STD cast2010-01-09 16:12:4026.4992 N, 76.6826 WRRS Discovery D346
1017064CTD or STD cast2010-01-09 23:15:1426.4971 N, 76.6298 WRRS Discovery D346
1017076CTD or STD cast2010-01-10 05:21:1926.4961 N, 76.5379 WRRS Discovery D346
1017088CTD or STD cast2010-01-10 13:48:1926.4837 N, 76.4433 WRRS Discovery D346
1017107CTD or STD cast2010-01-10 19:47:2426.4959 N, 76.3029 WRRS Discovery D346
1017119CTD or STD cast2010-01-11 01:49:1326.4871 N, 76.2249 WRRS Discovery D346
1017120CTD or STD cast2010-01-11 13:50:3826.4958 N, 76.1087 WRRS Discovery D346
1017132CTD or STD cast2010-01-11 19:54:2126.5018 N, 75.9088 WRRS Discovery D346
1017144CTD or STD cast2010-01-12 02:11:1726.4985 N, 75.726 WRRS Discovery D346
1017156CTD or STD cast2010-01-12 07:56:0326.5005 N, 75.5089 WRRS Discovery D346
1017168CTD or STD cast2010-01-12 13:26:3726.4969 N, 75.312 WRRS Discovery D346
1017181CTD or STD cast2010-01-12 19:12:2326.5032 N, 75.0731 WRRS Discovery D346
1017193CTD or STD cast2010-01-13 00:51:1926.4966 N, 74.8041 WRRS Discovery D346
1017200CTD or STD cast2010-01-13 06:37:2226.498 N, 74.5169 WRRS Discovery D346
1017212CTD or STD cast2010-01-13 12:17:2326.498 N, 74.2419 WRRS Discovery D346
1017224CTD or STD cast2010-01-13 18:01:5626.5031 N, 73.9388 WRRS Discovery D346
1017236CTD or STD cast2010-01-14 00:23:5826.5164 N, 73.5857 WRRS Discovery D346
1017248CTD or STD cast2010-01-14 07:00:2126.5102 N, 73.2055 WRRS Discovery D346
1017261CTD or STD cast2010-01-14 13:20:0126.5059 N, 72.8415 WRRS Discovery D346
1017273CTD or STD cast2010-01-14 20:04:0626.5077 N, 72.4638 WRRS Discovery D346
1017285CTD or STD cast2010-01-15 02:45:1726.5136 N, 72.1067 WRRS Discovery D346
1017297CTD or STD cast2010-01-15 09:36:1226.5137 N, 71.7189 WRRS Discovery D346
1017304CTD or STD cast2010-01-15 16:39:0226.4959 N, 71.3615 WRRS Discovery D346
1017316CTD or STD cast2010-01-15 23:14:4626.4757 N, 71.0042 WRRS Discovery D346
1017328CTD or STD cast2010-01-16 07:15:0826.1026 N, 70.6338 WRRS Discovery D346
1017341CTD or STD cast2010-01-16 15:26:3425.699 N, 70.2657 WRRS Discovery D346
1017353CTD or STD cast2010-01-16 23:16:0125.3052 N, 69.9027 WRRS Discovery D346
1017365CTD or STD cast2010-01-17 06:58:1224.9046 N, 69.5358 WRRS Discovery D346
1017377CTD or STD cast2010-01-17 14:35:1324.505 N, 69.1528 WRRS Discovery D346
1017389CTD or STD cast2010-01-17 23:07:4724.5094 N, 68.4072 WRRS Discovery D346
1017390CTD or STD cast2010-01-18 08:04:5124.5084 N, 67.67 WRRS Discovery D346
1017408CTD or STD cast2010-01-18 16:05:2224.4999 N, 66.9392 WRRS Discovery D346
1017421CTD or STD cast2010-01-19 00:15:4724.4991 N, 66.2105 WRRS Discovery D346
1017433CTD or STD cast2010-01-19 07:57:0324.5016 N, 65.4893 WRRS Discovery D346
1017445CTD or STD cast2010-01-19 16:43:4824.4989 N, 64.7677 WRRS Discovery D346
1017457CTD or STD cast2010-01-20 01:50:1224.5136 N, 64.0161 WRRS Discovery D346
1017469CTD or STD cast2010-01-20 10:06:2924.4954 N, 63.2919 WRRS Discovery D346
1017470CTD or STD cast2010-01-20 18:06:5124.5011 N, 62.5559 WRRS Discovery D346
1017482CTD or STD cast2010-01-21 02:46:1524.5084 N, 61.8063 WRRS Discovery D346
1017494CTD or STD cast2010-01-21 10:24:4724.5016 N, 61.0844 WRRS Discovery D346
1017501CTD or STD cast2010-01-21 18:17:5524.4995 N, 60.3471 WRRS Discovery D346
1017513CTD or STD cast2010-01-22 02:45:2024.5062 N, 59.6282 WRRS Discovery D346
1017525CTD or STD cast2010-01-22 11:17:4224.498 N, 58.8964 WRRS Discovery D346
1017537CTD or STD cast2010-01-22 19:59:3524.5018 N, 58.1505 WRRS Discovery D346
1017549CTD or STD cast2010-01-23 04:34:4924.502 N, 57.3985 WRRS Discovery D346
1018332CTD or STD cast2010-01-23 11:20:1224.4967 N, 57.0506 WRRS Discovery D346
1017550CTD or STD cast2010-01-23 19:57:1724.4891 N, 56.6897 WRRS Discovery D346
1017562CTD or STD cast2010-01-24 05:36:0924.4799 N, 55.9437 WRRS Discovery D346
1017574CTD or STD cast2010-01-24 18:34:5724.4963 N, 55.2389 WRRS Discovery D346
1017586CTD or STD cast2010-01-25 05:52:3824.5097 N, 54.4528 WRRS Discovery D346
1017598CTD or STD cast2010-01-25 15:08:5024.51 N, 53.938 WRRS Discovery D346
1017605CTD or STD cast2010-01-26 00:46:4824.8391 N, 53.3993 WRRS Discovery D346
1017617CTD or STD cast2010-01-26 09:38:1825.1108 N, 52.8405 WRRS Discovery D346
1017629CTD or STD cast2010-01-26 17:30:4025.0799 N, 52.2902 WRRS Discovery D346
1017630CTD or STD cast2010-01-27 12:19:1025.0222 N, 51.7532 WRRS Discovery D346
1017642CTD or STD cast2010-01-27 20:32:4124.9374 N, 51.1852 WRRS Discovery D346
1017654CTD or STD cast2010-01-28 03:37:1724.7984 N, 50.632 WRRS Discovery D346
1017666CTD or STD cast2010-01-28 10:38:1124.6687 N, 50.0899 WRRS Discovery D346
1017678CTD or STD cast2010-01-28 18:16:1824.5207 N, 49.5342 WRRS Discovery D346
1017691CTD or STD cast2010-01-29 02:26:4324.349 N, 49.0082 WRRS Discovery D346
1017709CTD or STD cast2010-01-29 09:37:2724.196 N, 48.473 WRRS Discovery D346
1017710CTD or STD cast2010-01-29 16:30:5324.0662 N, 47.9426 WRRS Discovery D346
1017722CTD or STD cast2010-01-29 23:57:3923.9755 N, 47.4087 WRRS Discovery D346
1017734CTD or STD cast2010-01-30 07:40:0323.8992 N, 46.8761 WRRS Discovery D346
1017746CTD or STD cast2010-01-30 15:19:4123.8739 N, 46.3337 WRRS Discovery D346
1017758CTD or STD cast2010-01-30 22:51:0423.7669 N, 45.802 WRRS Discovery D346
1017771CTD or STD cast2010-01-31 05:28:0423.7325 N, 45.27 WRRS Discovery D346
1017783CTD or STD cast2010-01-31 12:32:5423.6355 N, 44.7354 WRRS Discovery D346
1017795CTD or STD cast2010-01-31 19:19:5423.5353 N, 44.2091 WRRS Discovery D346
1017802CTD or STD cast2010-02-01 02:18:5923.45 N, 43.6718 WRRS Discovery D346
1017814CTD or STD cast2010-02-01 09:21:4623.3727 N, 43.1415 WRRS Discovery D346
1017826CTD or STD cast2010-02-01 16:18:4423.2503 N, 42.6004 WRRS Discovery D346
1017838CTD or STD cast2010-02-02 01:44:5223.3847 N, 41.7691 WRRS Discovery D346
1017851CTD or STD cast2010-02-02 10:05:1823.5204 N, 40.9444 WRRS Discovery D346
1017863CTD or STD cast2010-02-02 18:31:0423.6671 N, 40.1083 WRRS Discovery D346
1017875CTD or STD cast2010-02-03 03:18:3523.7994 N, 39.2622 WRRS Discovery D346
1017887CTD or STD cast2010-02-03 11:54:3123.9348 N, 38.4332 WRRS Discovery D346
1017899CTD or STD cast2010-02-03 20:50:0424.0895 N, 37.6111 WRRS Discovery D346
1017906CTD or STD cast2010-02-04 05:31:5624.2193 N, 36.7698 WRRS Discovery D346
1017918CTD or STD cast2010-02-04 13:54:1224.3634 N, 35.9273 WRRS Discovery D346
1017931CTD or STD cast2010-02-05 00:52:1524.5062 N, 35.085 WRRS Discovery D346
1017943CTD or STD cast2010-02-05 08:39:5424.4954 N, 34.4167 WRRS Discovery D346
1018344CTD or STD cast2010-02-05 15:34:0924.5061 N, 34.0463 WRRS Discovery D346
1017955CTD or STD cast2010-02-05 19:28:5824.4961 N, 33.7285 WRRS Discovery D346
1017967CTD or STD cast2010-02-06 02:51:2124.5002 N, 33.0449 WRRS Discovery D346
1017979CTD or STD cast2010-02-06 10:35:0824.494 N, 32.3574 WRRS Discovery D346
1017980CTD or STD cast2010-02-06 18:07:0024.4976 N, 31.6808 WRRS Discovery D346
1017992CTD or STD cast2010-02-07 02:21:3424.4964 N, 31.0027 WRRS Discovery D346
1018006CTD or STD cast2010-02-07 10:39:0324.4919 N, 30.3215 WRRS Discovery D346
1018018CTD or STD cast2010-02-07 19:30:1224.5028 N, 29.6583 WRRS Discovery D346
1018031CTD or STD cast2010-02-08 04:13:4024.5009 N, 28.9609 WRRS Discovery D346
1018043CTD or STD cast2010-02-08 13:03:4424.5009 N, 28.2953 WRRS Discovery D346
1018055CTD or STD cast2010-02-08 22:15:5824.4916 N, 27.5993 WRRS Discovery D346
1018067CTD or STD cast2010-02-09 06:37:2424.512 N, 26.9118 WRRS Discovery D346
1018079CTD or STD cast2010-02-09 15:02:5224.5099 N, 26.225 WRRS Discovery D346
1018092CTD or STD cast2010-02-10 08:11:2124.5142 N, 24.8471 WRRS Discovery D346
1018111CTD or STD cast2010-02-10 15:58:3924.4998 N, 24.1647 WRRS Discovery D346
1018123CTD or STD cast2010-02-10 23:29:0824.4942 N, 23.501 WRRS Discovery D346
1018135CTD or STD cast2010-02-11 06:51:1924.7142 N, 22.8842 WRRS Discovery D346
1018147CTD or STD cast2010-02-11 14:07:1524.9187 N, 22.2656 WRRS Discovery D346
1018159CTD or STD cast2010-02-11 21:09:1925.1367 N, 21.6523 WRRS Discovery D346
1018160CTD or STD cast2010-02-12 03:51:4325.3346 N, 21.0304 WRRS Discovery D346
1018172CTD or STD cast2010-02-12 10:32:1425.5458 N, 20.4184 WRRS Discovery D346
1018184CTD or STD cast2010-02-12 17:10:4125.7426 N, 19.7968 WRRS Discovery D346
1018196CTD or STD cast2010-02-12 23:39:5325.9624 N, 19.1884 WRRS Discovery D346
1018203CTD or STD cast2010-02-13 05:53:4426.1676 N, 18.5738 WRRS Discovery D346
1018215CTD or STD cast2010-02-13 12:12:5326.3764 N, 17.959 WRRS Discovery D346
1018227CTD or STD cast2010-02-13 18:40:1226.5763 N, 17.3344 WRRS Discovery D346
1018239CTD or STD cast2010-02-14 01:05:2626.7898 N, 16.7151 WRRS Discovery D346
1018240CTD or STD cast2010-02-14 07:21:0526.9886 N, 16.0968 WRRS Discovery D346
1018252CTD or STD cast2010-02-14 13:39:0127.1971 N, 15.483 WRRS Discovery D346
1018264CTD or STD cast2010-02-14 19:50:2427.4145 N, 14.8686 WRRS Discovery D346
1018276CTD or STD cast2010-02-15 01:50:0027.6229 N, 14.2368 WRRS Discovery D346
1018288CTD or STD cast2010-02-15 06:33:0127.7894 N, 13.7772 WRRS Discovery D346
1018307CTD or STD cast2010-02-15 10:15:3127.8667 N, 13.5561 WRRS Discovery D346
1018319CTD or STD cast2010-02-15 13:02:5227.9113 N, 13.4101 WRRS Discovery D346
1018320CTD or STD cast2010-02-15 15:25:1627.9275 N, 13.3692 WRRS Discovery D346